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Djinn or Jinn and Genie are dark holographic beings,twisted and corrupt version of the Serapheans

Jinn or djinn (singular: jinnī, djinni, or genie; Template:Lang-ar Template:Transl, singular Template:Lang Template:Transl) are according to fictional sourse are supernatural creatures in Islamic mythology as well as pre-Islamic Arabian mythology. They are mentioned frequently in the Quran (the 72nd sura is titled Sūrat al-Jinn) and other Islamic texts and inhabit an unseen world in dimensions beyond the visible universe of humans.According to Maveric Universe Mythology,they are actually Dark Serapheans,whose holographic program has been corrupted.

The Quran says that the jinn are made of a smokeless and "scorching fire",[1] but are also physical in nature, being able to interfere physically with people and objects and likewise be acted upon. The jinn, humans and angels make up the three sapient creations of God. Like human beings, the jinn can be good, evil, or neutrally benevolent and hence have free will like humans and unlike angels.[2] The shaytan jinn are the analogue of demons in Christian tradition, but the jinn are not angels and the Quran draws a clear distinction between the two creations. The Quran states in surat Al-Kahf (The Cave), Ayah 50,[3] that Iblis (Satan) is one of the jinn

Etymology and definitionsEdit

Jinn is a noun of the collective number in Arabic literally meaning "hidden from sight", and it derives from the Arabic root Template:Transl (pronounced: jann/ junn جَنّ / جُنّ) meaning "to hide" or "be hidden". Other words derived from this root are Template:Transl 'mad' (literally, 'one whose intellect is hidden'), Template:Transl 'madness', and Template:Transl 'embryo, fetus' ('hidden inside the womb').[4] The word genie in English is derived from Latin genius, meaning a sort of tutelary or guardian spirit thought to be assigned to each person at birth.

English borrowed the French descendant of this word, génie; its earliest written attestation in English, in 1655, is a plural spelled "genyes". The French translators of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights used génie as a translation of jinnī because it was similar to the Arabic word in sound and in meaning. This use was also adopted in English and has since become dominant.Template:Citation needed In Arabic, the word Template:Transl is in the collective number, translated in English as plural (e.g., "several genies"); Template:Transl is in the singulative number, used to refer to one individual, which is translated by the singular in English (e.g., "one genie"). Therefore, the word jinn in English writing is treated as a plural.   ==In the pre-Islamic era==  Inscriptions found in Northwestern Arabia seem to indicate the worship of jinn, or at least their tributary status, hundreds of years before Islam. For instance, an inscription from Beth Fasi'el near Palmyra pays tribute to the "jinnaye", the "good and rewarding gods".[5]   ==In Islam==

In Islamic theology jinn are said to be creatures with free will, made from smokeless fire by Allah as humans were made of clay, among other things.[6] According to the Quran, jinn have free will, and [[Devil (Islam)|Template:Transl]] abused this freedom in front of Allah by refusing to bow to Adam when Allah ordered angels and jinn to do so. For disobeying Allah, Iblīs was expelled from Paradise and called "[[Devil (Islam)|Template:Transl]]" (Satan). Jinn are frequently mentioned in the Quran: Surah 72 (named Sūrat al-Jinn) is named after the jinn, and has a passage about them. Another surah (Sūrat al-Nās) mentions jinn in the last verse.[7] The Qurʾan also mentions that Muhammad was sent as a prophet to both "humanity and the jinn", and that prophets and messengers were sent to both communities.[8][9] Similar to humans, jinn have free will allowing them to do as they choose (such as follow any religion).

They are usually invisible to humans, but humans do appear clearly to jinn, as they can possess them.Jinn can appear as glowing figures,like the Serapheans or simply humanoid being,disguised as humans. Jinn have the power to travel large distances at extreme speeds and are thought to live in remote areas, mountains, seas, trees, and the air, in their own communities. Like humans, jinn will also be judged on the Day of Judgment and will be sent to Paradise or Hell according to their deeds.[10] 

===Classifications and characteristics===

The social organization of the jinn community resembles that of humans; e.g., they have kings, courts of law, weddings, and mourning rituals.[11] A few traditions (hadith), divide jinn into three classes: those who have wings and fly in the air, those who resemble snakes and dogs, and those who travel about ceaselessly.[12] Other reports claim that ‘Abd Allāh ibn Mas‘ūd (d. 652), who was accompanying Prophet Muhammad when the jinn came to hear his recitation of the Quran, described them as creatures of different forms; some resembling vultures and snakes, others tall men in white garb.[13]

They may even appear as dragons, onagers, or a number of other animals.[14] In addition to their animal forms, the jinn occasionally assume human form to mislead and destroy their human victims.[15] Certain hadiths have also claimed that the jinn may subsist on bones, which will grow flesh again as soon as they touch them, and that their animals may live on dung, which will revert to grain or grass for the use of the jinn flocks.[16] Ibn Taymiyyah believed the jinn were generally "ignorant, untruthful, oppressive and treacherous",[17] thus representing the very strict interpretations adhered by the Salafi schools of thought. Ibn Taymiyyah believes that the jinn account for much of the "magic" perceived by humans, cooperating with magicians to lift items in the air unseen, delivering hidden truths to fortune tellers, and mimicking the voices of deceased humans during seances.[17] In Sūrat al-Raḥmān, verse 33, God reminds jinn as well as mankind that they would possess the ability to pass beyond the furthest reaches of space only by His authority, followed by the question: "Then which of the favors of your Lord do you deny?" In Sūrat Al-Jinn, verses 8–10, Allah narrates concerning the jinn how they touched or "sought the limits" of the sky and found it full of stern guards and shooting stars, as a warning to man. It goes on further to say how the jinn used to take stations in the skies to listen to divine decrees passed down through the ranks of the angels,Template:Fact but those who attempt to listen now (during and after the revelation of the Qurʾan) shall find fiery sentinels awaiting them. 

===Qarīn=== A related belief is that every person is assigned one's own special jinni, also called a qarīn, and if the qarin is evil it could whisper to people's souls and tell them to submit to evil desires.[18][19][20] The notion of a qarin is not universally accepted among all Muslims, but it is generally accepted that [[Devil (Islam)|Template:Transl]] whispers in human minds, and he is assigned to each human being. In a hadith recorded by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, the companion Abdullah, son of Masud reported: 'The Prophet Muhammad said: 'There is not one of you who does not have a jinnī appointed to be his constant companion (qarīn).' They said, 'And you too, O Messenger of Allah?' He said, 'Me too, but Allah has helped me and he has submitted, so that he only helps me to do good.' 'Template:Cn   ===In Muslim cultures===

File:ManuscriptAbbasid.jpg
 The stories of the jinn can be found in various Muslim cultures around the world. In Sindh the concept of the Jinni was introduced during the Abbasid Era and has become a common part of the local folklore which also includes stories of both male jinn called "jinn" and female jinn called "jiniri". Folk stories of female jinn include stories such as the Jejhal Jiniri. Other acclaimed stories of the jinn can be found in the One Thousand and One Nights story of the Fisherman and the Jinni;[21] more than three different types of jinn are described in the story of Ma‘ruf the Cobbler;[22][23] a mighty jinni helps young Aladdin in the story of Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp;[24] as Ḥasan Badr al-Dīn weeps over the grave of his father until sleep overcomes him, and he is awoken by a large group of sympathetic jinn in the Tale of ‘Alī Nūr al-Dīn and his son Badr ad-Dīn Ḥasan.[25] During the Rwandan genocide, both Hutus and Tutsi avoided searching in local Rwandan Muslim neighborhoods and widely believed myths that local Muslims and Mosques were protected by the power of Islamic magic and the efficacious jinn.Template:Cn In Cyangugu, arsonists ran away instead of destroying the mosque because they believed jinn were guarding the mosque and feared their wrath.[26]The modern city of Deoband (Uttar Pradesh, India) is named on similar grounds. 'Deo' from Hindi, is a synonym of Jinn, while 'Band' means closed, but can be translated as captured in Hindi.Template:Cn The legend says that there was once a menacing jinni, and it was an elderly man who put a stop to him, by capturing him into a bottle and sealing him away forever. Another version describes that there were two, not one jinni. The bottle/s are said to be sealed away in the dungeon of a mosque situated on a hill in the city itself, which has not been opened ever since. Additionally, the premier Islamic body of Darul-Uloom, Deoband is said to have a vibrant community of civilized jinn in its midst.Template:Fact 

Solomon and the JinnEdit

Main article: Solomon in Islam According to traditions, the jinn stood behind the learned humans in Solomon's court, who in turn, sat behind the prophets. The jinn remained in the service of Solomon, who had placed them in bondage, and had ordered them to perform a number of tasks. "And before Solomon were marshalled his hosts,- of jinn and men and birds, and they were all kept in order and ranks." (Quran 27:17) The Qurʾan relates that Solomon died while he was leaning on his staff. As he remained upright, propped on his staff, the jinn thought he was still alive and supervising them, so they continued to work. They realized the truth only when Allah sent a creature to crawl out of the ground and gnaw at Solomon's staff until his body collapsed. The Qurʾan then comments that if they had known the unseen, they would not have stayed in the humiliating torment of being enslaved. "Then, when We decreed (Solomon's) death, nothing showed them his death except a little worm of the earth, which kept (slowly) gnawing away at his staff: so when he fell down, the jinn saw plainly that if they had known the unseen, they would not have tarried in the humiliating penalty (of their task)."

(Qurʾan 34:14) Ibn al-Nadim, in his Kitāb al-Fihrist, describes a book that lists seventy Jinn lead by Fuqtus, named "‘Mrd, Kywan, Shimr‘al, Firuz, Mhaqal, Zaynab, Syduk, Jndrb, Siyyar, Zanbur, al-Da’hs, Kawkab, Hamran, Dahir, Qarun, Shidad, Sa‘sa‘ah, Baktan, Harthamah, Takallum, Furuq, Hurmiz, Hamhamah, ‘Ayzar, Mazahim, Murrah, Fatrah, al-Haym, Arhbh, Khyth‘, Khyfth, Rayah, Zuhal, Zawba‘ah, Mhtukara, Hayshab, Tq‘ytan, Wqas, Qdmnh, Mufarrish, Ayra’il, Nizar, Shftil, Dywyd, Ankara, Khatufah, Tnkyush, Misalqar, Qadim, Ashja‘, Nawdar, Tythamah, ‘Usar, Thu‘ban, Naman, Nmudrky, Tyabur, Sahitun, ‘Udhafir, Mirdas, Shytub, Za‘rush, Sakhr, al-‘Aramram, Khashram, Shadhan, al-Harith, al-Hurth, ‘Udhrah (‘Adhirah)", and "Faqruf."[27][28]  This list also includes several Jinn appointed over each day of the week, named (in order): Danhash, Shakhba, Marbaya, ‘Abara, Mismar, Namudarki, and Bakhtash.[27][28] Bayard Dodge, who translated al-Fihrist into English, notes that most of these names appear in the Testament of Solomon.[27] A collection of late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century magico-medical manuscripts from Ocaña, Spain describes a different set of Jinn (termed "Tayaliq") again under Fuqtus (here named "Fayqayțūš"), blaming them for various ailments.[29][30] The jinn listed include M.h.m.s., Mūn.s, N.qīq, M.y.d, Y.d.b.h., 'a.q.l., al-Gūl,[31] Māŷ.z, Rū'ā, 'amdayāni, L.țūš, al-Dwlāt, Aluwf, D.n.h.š, N.zhūš (son of the king D.n.h.š'), al-Dābā (AKA al-Wāh.na), M.s.rf, Zwb.g.h., H.ŷā, 'w.ya,[32] 'abaqardāti Ālāsqām, al-Z.b.d.h., al-Qūt, al-Sy.syān, Qalnamāta, F'aŷayān, Ș'aya, al-Rwāh, al-Q.r.șa, Rūnīmah, al-Janāmin,[33] Hšhš, Lhyf, Samhal, Biqasmayni, Ŷ.n.d', Țlyābān, S.f.r., H.mūdī, N.f.s., Hūrtā, al-Rāhiy'a, al-D.rbān, al-Jațāf Majrūf, al-W.swās,[34] 'Umm Mildām, al-Zūa, al-N.bāh, al-Mūl', al-W.swās (the greater), al-J.nas al-Șgār, al-H.m.qā, H.s.n, al-Māsūr, Bulum, Šājiyā, B.rdūn, Bazid al M.ŷusīn, M.'rūz, M.līla al-Nāq.da,[35] Mrwyā, al-Fāliy, al-Wāțq, al-As'ārī al-Yahūdī, L.w.q., al-M.rīj, 'āmir abū al-Šayșfān (father of al-Ŷabālī), Alhlya Alzāhira, Q.d.sā, Ŝ.r.hī, M.g.š.g.s., and 'a.rā.[36] 

In other culturesEdit

File:LLW Aladdin genie.jpg
 In Guanche mythology from Tenerife in the Canary Islands, there existed the belief in beings that are similar to geniesTemplate:Synthesis-inline, such as the maxios or dioses paredros ('attendant gods', domestic and nature spirits) and tibicenas (evil genies), as well as the demon Guayota (aboriginal god of evil) that, like the Arabic [[Devil (Islam)|Template:Transl]], is sometimes identified with a genie.[37] 

In the BibleEdit

The word or concept of jinn as such does not occur in the original Hebrew text of the Bible, but the Arabic word Template:Transl is often used in several old Arabic translations. In Isaiah 6, the seraphim (lit. "burning/fiery ones") appear to the prophet Isaiah, with their six wings being used to cover, or hide, their body, face and feet. In several verses in those Arabic translations, the words jinn (Template:Lang), jann (Template:Lang Template:Transl), majnoon (Template:Lang Template:Transl), and Template:Transl (Template:Lang) are mentioned as translations of "familiar spirit" or אוב (Job) for jann and "the devil" or Template:Lang (daimónion) for Template:Transl.  

Several passages from the New Testament refer to Jesus casting out evil spirits (or demons) from those that were demon-possessed. According to Islamic tradition, these evil spirits are strikingly similar to the jinn creatures mentioned in the Qur'an and Hadith literature. Among the similarities of these creatures is their ability to take possession of human beings. 

In Van Dyck's Arabic translation of the Bible, these words are mentioned in Leviticus 19:31, Lev 20:6, 1 Samuel 28:3, 1 Sa 28:9, 1 Sa 28:7, 1 Chronicles 10:13, Gospel of Matthew 4:1, Mat 12:22, Gospel of Luke 4:5, Luk 8:12, Gospel of John 8:44 and other versesTemplate:Citation needed as well. Also, in the apocryphal book Testament of Solomon, Solomon describes particular demons whom he enslaved to help build the temple, the questions he put to them about their deeds and how they could be thwarted, and their answers, which provide a kind of self-help manual against demonic activity. 

In popular cultureEdit

Main article: Genie in popular culture 
  • The Caliph's House and In Arabian Nights by Tahir Shah, describes his family's experiences in moving from London to a supposedly jinn-inhabited home in Morocco.
  • The Golem and the Jinni [38] is Helene Wecker's 2013 historical fiction/fantasy novel about a woman made of clay (golem) and a jinni who meet under curious circumstances in 1899 New York City. 
  • The X-Files: Season 7, Episode 21, "Je Souhaite" (original title) Two brothers have a less than helpful genie who grants their wishes with disastrous consequences. Mulder comes into possession of the same genie, and his wishes garner similar results.* In a subplot in Neil Gaiman's novel, American Gods, a salesman discontented with his life has a sexual encounter with a jinni (specifically, an ‘ifrit) who is working as a taxi driver in New York.*In Summoned by Rainy Kaye, the character Dimitri is a jinni who has to fulfill wishes even though he has no supernatural powers.
  • In the Supernatural episode "What Is and What Should Never Be", the protagonist, Dean Winchester, is attacked by a jinni and it grants him his wish. They also make an appearance later in the season 6 episode "Exile on Main St".
  • In the popular online MMORPG AdventureQuest Worlds, the Middle Eastern-themed zone the Sandsea Desert features a Djinni Chaos Lord named Tibicenas, as well as a Djinni realm which the player can explore.
  • In Clash of the Titans the Djinn are ancient desert sorcerers who extended their longevity by replacing damaged body parts with "charwood and black magic", also rendering them immune to certain other forms of magic.
  • "Two Djinn" is a song by Bob Weir and Gerrit Graham which was released on Ratdog's 2000 album Evening Moods.
  • In Wishmaster an evil Djinn is released from a museum exhibit.
  • I Dream of Jeannie is a 1960s television show starring Larry Hagman & Barbara Eden as a beautiful but incorrigible genie rescued by an Air Force pilot, Major Anthony Nelson (Hagman) who constantly gets him into trouble with her magic.
  • In the video game series Golden Sun players use four types of Djinn representing the four traditional elements Earth, Fire, Water, and Wind to battle monsters.
  • In the video game Ni No Kuni: Wrath of the White Witch, the secondary antagonist, Shadar, is also known as 'The Dark Djinni' while there is also the benevolent Cauldron bound Genie named Al-Khemi that helps the player craft new items after beating him in battle.
  • In P.B. Kerr's series, "Children of the Lamp", the main protagonists and antagonists of the series are djinn.
  • In the video game, Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception, Nathan Drake searches the legendary city of Ubar, which according to legend was doomed thousands of years ago by King Solomon when he imprisoned evil Djinn within a brass vessel and cast it into the heart of the city.
  • In the The Magician's Nephew by C.S. Lewis, the witch Jadis is described as "half Jinni and half giantess".
  • Disney's 1992 movie Aladdin depicts the genie (voiced by Robin Williams) as an indomitable wisecracker who often references contemporary pop culture.
  • In the manga/anime series Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic djinn are magical creatures of near limitless power who reside in structures known as "dungeons". Whoever conquers a dungeon will become the djinns' master.
  • In the anime series Time Travel Tondekeman, the main antagonist evil magician Abdullah has a magic lamp that releases a giant genie with a Superman-like costume and appearance.* In Diane Wynne Jones book "Castle in the Air", the main character (Abdullah) deals with a djinn (Hasruel) to find his love (princess Flower-in-the-Night). 

GalleryEdit

Template:Commons cat 

See alsoEdit

Template:Div col

==Notes==
  1. Qur’ān 15:27
  2. El-Zein, Amira. "Jinn", 420-421, in Meri, Joseph W., Medieval Islamic Civilization - An Encyclopedia.
  3. Surat Al-Kahf (18:50) – The Holy Qur'an – القرآن الكريم
  4. ==Further reading==
    • Template loop detected: Template:Cite book
    • Template loop detected: Template:Cite book
    • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |
  5. Hoyland, R. G., Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam.
  6. Template:Quran-usc
  7. Template:Quran-usc
  8. Template:Quran-usc
  9. Muḥammad ibn Ayyūb al-Ṭabarī, Tuḥfat al-gharā’ib, I, p. 68; Abū al-Futūḥ Rāzī, Tafsīr-e rawḥ al-jenān va rūḥ al-janān, pp. 193, 341
  10. Tafsīr; Bakhsh az tafsīr-e kohan, p. 181; Loeffler, p. 46
  11. Ṭūsī, p. 484; Fozūnī, p. 527
  12. Fozūnī, p. 526
  13. Fozūnī, pp. 525–526
  14. Kolaynī, I, p. 396; Solṭān-Moḥammad, p. 62
  15. Mīhandūst, p. 44
  16. Abu’l-Fotūḥ, XVII, pp. 280–281
  17. 17.0 17.1 Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Furqān bayna awliyā’ al-Raḥmān wa-awliyā’ al-Shayṭān ("Essay on the Jinn"), translated by Abu Ameenah Bilal Phillips
  18. Template:Quran-usc
  19. Template:Quran-usc
  20. Sahih Muslim, No. 2714
  21. The fisherman and the Jinni at About.com Classic Literature
  22. Idries Shah - Tales of the Dervishes at Scribd
  23. MA’ARUF THE COBBLER AND HIS WIFE
  24. The Arabian Nights - ALADDIN; OR, THE WONDERFUL LAMP at About.com Classic Literature
  25. [http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/arabian/bl-arabian-nuraldin.htm The Arabian Nights - TALE OF NUR AL-DIN ALI AND HIS SON BADR AL-DIN HASAN] at About.com Classic Literature
  26. Template:Cite journal
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Bayard Dodge, ed. and trans. The Fihrist of al-Nadim: A Tenth-Century Survey of Muslim Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970. pp. 727-8.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Robert Lebling. Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar. I.B. Taurus, 2010. p.38
  29. Celia del Moral. Magia y Superstitión en los Manuscritos de Ocaña (Toledo). Siglos XIV-XV. Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the Union Européenne des Arabisants et Islamisants, Part Two; A. Fodor, ed.  Budapest, 10-17 September 2000. pp.109-121
  30. Joaquina Albarracin Navarro & Juan Martinez Ruiz. Medicina, Farmacopea y Magia en el "Misceláneo de Salomón".  Universidad de Granada, 1987. p.38 et passim
  31. Navarro, Ruiz, p.134-139
  32. Navarro, Ruiz, p.140-149
  33. Navarro, Ruiz, p.150-159
  34. Navarro, Ruiz, p.160-169
  35. Navarro, Ruiz, p.170-179
  36. Navarro, Ruiz, p.180-187
  37. Guanche Religion
  38. The Golem and the Jinni
 

ReferencesEdit

  • Al-Ashqar, Dr. Umar Sulaiman (1998). The World of the Jinn and Devils. Boulder, CO: Al-Basheer Company for Publications and Translations.
  • Barnhart, Robert K. The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology. 1995.
  • "Genie”. The Oxford English Dictionary. Second edition, 1989.
  • Abu al-Futūḥ Rāzī, Tafsīr-e rawḥ al-jenān va rūḥ al-janān IX-XVII (pub. so far), Tehran, 1988.
  • Moḥammad Ayyūb Ṭabarī, Tuḥfat al-gharā’ib, ed. J. Matīnī, Tehran, 1971.
  • A. Aarne and S. Thompson, The Types of the Folktale, 2nd rev. ed., Folklore Fellows Communications 184, Helsinki, 1973.
  • Abu’l-Moayyad Balkhī, Ajā’eb al-donyā, ed. L. P. Smynova, Moscow, 1993.
  • A. Christensen, Essai sur la Demonologie iranienne, Det. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Historisk-filologiske Meddelelser, 1941.
  • R. Dozy, Supplément aux Dictionnaires arabes, 3rd ed., Leyden, 1967.
  • H. El-Shamy, Folk Traditions of the Arab World: A Guide to Motif Classification, 2 vols., Bloomington, 1995.
  • Abū Bakr Moṭahhar Jamālī Yazdī, Farrokh-nāma, ed. Ī. Afshār, Tehran, 1967.
  • Abū Jaʿfar Moḥammad Kolaynī, Ketāb al-kāfī, ed. A. Ghaffārī, 8 vols., Tehran, 1988.
  • Edward William Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon, Beirut, 1968.
  • L. Loeffler, Islam in Practice: Religious Beliefs in a Persian Village, New York, 1988.
  • U. Marzolph, Typologie des persischen Volksmärchens, Beirut, 1984. Massé, Croyances.
  • M. Mīhandūst, Padīdahā-ye wahmī-e dīrsāl dar janūb-e Khorāsān, Honar o mordom, 1976, pp. 44–51.
  • T. Nöldeke "Arabs (Ancient)", in J. Hastings, ed., Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics I, Edinburgh, 1913, pp. 659–73.
  • S. Thompson, Motif-Index of Folk-Literature, rev. ed., 6 vols., Bloomington, 1955.
  • S. Thompson and W. Roberts, Types of Indic Oral Tales, Folklore Fellows Communications 180, Helsinki, 1960.* Solṭān-Moḥammad ibn Tāj al-Dīn Ḥasan Esterābādī, Toḥfat al-majāles, Tehran.* Moḥammad b. Maḥmūd Ṭūsī, Ajāyeb al-makhlūqāt va gharā’eb al-mawjūdāt, ed. M. Sotūda, Tehran, 1966. 

Further readingEdit

  • Crapanzano, V. (1973) The Hamadsha: a study in Moroccan ethnopsychiatry. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.* Drijvers, H. J. W. (1976) The Religion of Palmyra. Leiden, Brill.* El-Zein, Amira (2009) Islam, Arabs, and the intelligent world of the Jinn. Contemporary Issues in the Middle East. Syracuse, NY, Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-3200-9.* El-Zein, Amira (2006) "Jinn". In: J. F. Meri ed. Medieval Islamic civilization – an encyclopedia. New York and Abingdon, Routledge, pp. 420–421.
  • Goodman, L.E. (1978) The case of the animals versus man before the king of the Jinn: A tenth–century ecological fable of the pure brethren of Basra. Library of Classical Arabic Literature, vol. 3. Boston, Twayne.* Maarouf, M. (2007) Jinn eviction as a discourse of power: a multidisciplinary approach to Moroccan magical beliefs and practices. Leiden, Brill.* Zbinden, E. (1953) Die Djinn des Islam und der altorientalische Geisterglaube. Bern, Haupt. 

External linksEdit

Template:WiktionaryTemplate:NIE Poster* Etymology of genie

Section headingEdit

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DjinnEdit

.....| image =| caption = | comic_color = background:#8080ff | character_name =  | publisher = Maveric Comics| debut = [[Maveric Universe {Multiverse}]] #1 (August, 1992)| creators = Joseph Gilbert Thompson, Carl Edward Thompson | alliance_color = background:#ffc0c0}} 


The Djinns are a fictional alien race in the [[Maveric Universe {Multiverse}]]. They were created by Carl Edward Thompson and first appeared in [[Maveric Universe {Multiverse}]] #1 (August 1992).


BiologyEdit

Djinns are Holographic aliens from the planet Djinn, who are capable of possessing host bodies. Djinns need to possess a host to survive on planets with a climate different from Djinn, like Earth (though a deal with the D'rahn eliminated this weakness from all Djinns that resided on Earth at the time). When possessing a host, the Djinnite has access to all abilities that host has. A Djinnite can change his host into his true, Djinnite form, but can only maintain this form for a short period of time. Djinns can survive for millennia and are possibly even immortal. They are capable of regenerating missing limbs and quickly recover from serious injuries. The true form of the Djinns differs depending on the artist, but generally includes dark green skin, long sharp claws, sharp teeth, and a hunched posture. ==History==Millennia ago, the Djinns discovered interstellar travel and started to conquer the universe. Their ability to possess other species gave them a distinct advantage over most species, allowing infiltration and survival in almost any environment. Their rise to power was unopposed until they encountered the Serapheans.

The Serapheans were a noble race of nearly immortal warriors. Despite the Djinns' ability to possess the Serapheans, the Serapheans's technology allowed them to detect possessed individuals. The war raged for millennia. A Djinnite vessel fought a Serapheans vessel near Earth, thousands of years ago. Both spaceships were damaged and crashlanded on Earth. The Djinns decided to conquer this world and use its population as host bodies, while the Serapheans wanted to defend humanity. The Djinnite-Serapheans War inspired many tales of gods, demons, angels and monsters. Most of the Djinns organised themselves as the Cabal and focused on the goal of Djinnite Reunification: a return to Djinn. They were opposed by multiple heroes, such as Seraphean Guardian General Gabriel Sunryder and  the Major Azriel Sunryder.  

Unbeknownst to those stranded on Earth, the Serapheans won the war and imposed heavy reparations on Djinn. Djinnite society went bankrupt trying to pay and many Djinns migrated to prosperous Khera, but were confined to ghettos. When the Djinns on Earth found out, many of them ceased their quest for Reunification. Some settled down, others became mercenaries and others again, like Lord Helspont, now focused on increasing their own power and wealth. Helspont finds a 'sleeper ship' of Djinns and manages to recruit them to his cause. Most of these Djinns are slain by human police officers. Later, the Djinnite Lord Helspont found a Kheran World Shaper Engine on Earth and discovered that the Kherans were  sending Shaper Engines across the universe to land on planets and turn them into ideal habitats for Serapheans. He also discovered that one of these engines had created new races across the universe, including the humans and Djinns. Most notably, they play a central role in both the Voodoo and Grifter ongoing series, both featuring title characters who originated in the Maveric Universe {Multiverse}. The Djinns have also been featured in the many background events[[]], Sarkhon Family Tales, Demon Knights and Hawkman series. 

CultureEdit

Little is known about Djinnite culture. The Djinns on Earth are ruled by three Lords. Most Djinns on Earth are aggressive and completely devoted to the cause of Reunification.On Khera, the Djinn encountered Djinnite civilians whose behaviour was very much like human behaviour. The Djinns on Khera seemed to have a more tribal structure, but this could be a result of being confined to low-tech ghettos. After encountering peaceful Djinns on Khera, the Djinn have encountered several peaceful Djinns on Earth as well. The Djinns on Khera showed Djinn-member [[]], part Djinnite herself, rituals where Djinns possessed other Djinns. This ritual transferred memories, emotions and knowledge between Djinns and forged a strong bond between Djinns. 

TechnologyEdit

Djinns prefer to use their own natural abilities in battle, but their technology is very advanced. They have spaceships capable of interstellar flight. Nanotechnology allows them to create highly advanced weaponry in a short period of time. [[]] discovered a Djinnite-built portal into the other alternate realities  Djinns on Earth often wear special stealth-suits, hiding them from most forms of detection. Others wear flash-suits, which are armoured and possess built-in weaponry. 

Notable DjinnsEdit

  • Meranda Hellsport 
  • Mr. Munchowsenn
  • Doctor S'ryn
  • Lord Delith Ansarah of Zakhara
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