Template:Short description Template:Redirect2 Template:Redirect2 Template:Other uses Template:Pp-move-indef Template:Featured article Template:Use dmy dates Template:Use Indian English Template:Infobox deity Ganesha (Template:Lang-sa, Template:IAST3; Template:Audio), also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, or by numerous other names, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.[1] His image is found throughout India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Fiji, Thailand, Mauritius, Bali (Indonesia) and Bangladesh.[2] Hindu denominations worship him regardless of affiliations.[3] Devotion to Ganesha is widely diffused and extends to Jains and Buddhists.[4]

Although he is known by many attributes, Ganesha's elephant head makes him easy to identify.[5] Ganesha is widely revered as the remover of obstacles,[6] the patron of arts and sciences and the deva of intellect and wisdom.[7] As the god of beginnings, he is honoured at the start of rites and ceremonies. Ganesha is also invoked as patron of letters and learning during writing sessions.[8]Template:Sfn Several texts relate mythological anecdotes associated with his birth and exploits.

Ganesha likely emerged as a deity as early as the 1st century CE,[9] but most certainly by the 4th and 5th centuries CE, during the Gupta period, although he inherited traits from Vedic and pre-Vedic precursors.[10] Hindu mythology identifies him as the restored son of Parvati and Shiva of the Shaivism tradition, but he is a pan-Hindu god found in its various traditions.[11][12] In the Ganapatya tradition of Hinduism, Ganesha is the supreme deity.[13] The principal texts on Ganesha include the Ganesha Purana, the Mudgala Purana, and the Ganapati Atharvashirsa. Brahma Purana and Brahmanda Purana are other two Puranic genre encyclopaedic texts that deal with Ganesha.

Etymology and other namesEdit

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Ganesha has been ascribed many other titles and epithets, including Ganapati (Ganpati) and Vighneshvara. The Hindu title of respect Shri (Template:Lang-sa; IAST: Template:IAST; also spelled Sri or Shree) is often added before his name.

The name Ganesha is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words gana (Template:IAST), meaning a group, multitude, or categorical system and isha (Template:IAST), meaning lord or master.[14] The word gaṇa when associated with Ganesha is often taken to refer to the gaṇas, a troop of semi-divine beings that form part of the retinue of Shiva, Ganesha's father.[15] The term more generally means a category, class, community, association, or corporation.Template:Sfn Some commentators interpret the name "Lord of the Template:IAST" to mean "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord of created categories", such as the elements.[16] Ganapati (Template:Lang; Template:IAST), a synonym for Ganesha, is a compound composed of Template:IAST, meaning "group", and Template:IAST, meaning "ruler" or "lord".Template:Sfn Though the earliest mention of the word Ganapati is found in hymn 2.23.1 of the 2nd-millennium BCE Rigveda, it is however uncertain that the Vedic term referred specifically to Ganesha.Template:Sfn[17] The Amarakosha,[18] an early Sanskrit lexicon, lists eight synonyms of Ganesha: Vinayaka, Template:IAST (equivalent to Vighnesha), Template:IAST (one who has two mothers),[19] Template:IAST (equivalent to Ganapati and Ganesha), Ekadanta (one who has one tusk), Heramba, Lambodara (one who has a pot belly, or, literally, one who has a hanging belly), and Gajanana (Template:IAST); having the face of an elephant.[20]

Vinayaka (Template:Lang; Template:IAST) is a common name for Ganesha that appears in the Template:IASTs and in Buddhist Tantras.[21] This name is reflected in the naming of the eight famous Ganesha temples in Maharashtra known as the Ashtavinayak (Template:Lang-mr, Template:IAST).[22] The names Vighnesha (Template:Lang; Template:IAST) and Vighneshvara (Template:Lang; Template:IAST) (Lord of Obstacles)[23] refers to his primary function in Hinduism as the master and remover of obstacles (Template:IAST).[24]

A prominent name for Ganesha in the Tamil language is Pillai (Template:Lang-ta) or Pillaiyar (Template:Lang).[25] A.K. Narain differentiates these terms by saying that pillai means a "child" while pillaiyar means a "noble child". He adds that the words pallu, pella, and pell in the Dravidian family of languages signify "tooth or tusk", also "elephant tooth or tusk".[26] Anita Raina Thapan notes that the root word pille in the name Pillaiyar might have originally meant "the young of the elephant", because the Pali word pillaka means "a young elephant".[27]

In the Burmese language, Ganesha is known as Maha Peinne (Template:My, Template:IPA-my), derived from Pali Template:IAST (Template:My).[28] The widespread name of Ganesha in Thailand is Phra Phikanet.[29] The earliest images and mention of Ganesha names as a major deity in present-day Indonesia,[30] Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam date from the 7th- and 8th-centuries,Template:Sfn and these mirror Indian examples of the 5th century or earlier.Template:Sfn In Sri Lankan Singhala Buddhist areas, he is known as Gana deviyo, and revered along with Buddha, Vishnu, Skanda and others.[31]

Iconography Edit

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Ganesha is a popular figure in Indian art.[32] Unlike those of some deities, representations of Ganesha show wide variations and distinct patterns changing over time.[33] He may be portrayed standing, dancing, heroically taking action against demons, playing with his family as a boy, or sitting down on an elevated seat, or engaging in a range of contemporary situations.

Ganesha images were prevalent in many parts of India by the 6th century.[34] The 13th-century statue pictured is typical of Ganesha statuary from 900–1200, after Ganesha had been well-established as an independent deity with his own sect. This example features some of Ganesha's common iconographic elements. A virtually identical statue has been dated between 973–1200 by Paul Martin-Dubost,[35] and another similar statue is dated c. 12th century by Pratapaditya Pal.[36] Ganesha has the head of an elephant and a big belly. This statue has four arms, which is common in depictions of Ganesha. He holds his own broken tusk in his lower-right hand and holds a delicacy, which he samples with his trunk, in his lower-left hand. The motif of Ganesha turning his trunk sharply to his left to taste a sweet in his lower-left hand is a particularly archaic feature.[37] A more primitive statue in one of the Ellora Caves with this general form has been dated to the 7th century.[38] Details of the other hands are difficult to make out on the statue shown. In the standard configuration, Ganesha typically holds an axe or a goad in one upper arm and a pasha (noose) in the other upper arm. In rare instances, he may be depicted with a human head.[39]

The influence of this old constellation of iconographic elements can still be seen in contemporary representations of Ganesha. In one modern form, the only variation from these old elements is that the lower-right hand does not hold the broken tusk but is turned towards the viewer in a gesture of protection or fearlessness (Abhaya mudra).[40] The same combination of four arms and attributes occurs in statues of Ganesha dancing, which is a very popular theme.[41]

Common attributes Edit

For thirty-two popular iconographic forms of Ganesha, see Thirty-two forms of Ganesha.
File:Ganesha Nurpur miniature circa 1810 Dubost p64.jpg

Ganesha has been represented with the head of an elephant since the early stages of his appearance in Indian art.[43] Puranic myths provide many explanations for how he got his elephant head.[44] One of his popular forms, Heramba-Ganapati, has five elephant heads, and other less-common variations in the number of heads are known.[45] While some texts say that Ganesha was born with an elephant head, he acquires the head later in most stories.[46] The most recurrent motif in these stories is that Ganesha was created by Parvati using clay to protect her and Shiva beheaded him when Ganesha came between Shiva and Parvati. Shiva then replaced Ganesha's original head with that of an elephant.[47] Details of the battle and where the replacement head came from vary from source to source.[48][49] Another story says that Ganesha was created directly by Shiva's laughter. Because Shiva considered Ganesha too alluring, he gave him the head of an elephant and a protruding belly.[50]

Ganesha's earliest name was Ekadanta (One Tusked), referring to his single whole tusk, the other being broken.Template:Sfn Some of the earliest images of Ganesha show him holding his broken tusk.[51] The importance of this distinctive feature is reflected in the Mudgala Purana, which states that the name of Ganesha's second incarnation is Ekadanta.[52] Ganesha's protruding belly appears as a distinctive attribute in his earliest statuary, which dates to the Gupta period (4th to 6th centuries).[53] This feature is so important that according to the Mudgala Purana, two different incarnations of Ganesha use names based on it: Lambodara (Pot Belly, or, literally, Hanging Belly) and Mahodara (Great Belly).[54] Both names are Sanskrit compounds describing his belly (IAST: Template:IAST).[55] The Brahmanda Purana says that Ganesha has the name Lambodara because all the universes (i.e., cosmic eggs; IAST: Template:IAST) of the past, present, and future are present in him.[56] The number of Ganesha's arms varies; his best-known forms have between two and sixteen arms.[57] Many depictions of Ganesha feature four arms, which is mentioned in Puranic sources and codified as a standard form in some iconographic texts.[58] His earliest images had two arms.[59] Forms with 14 and 20 arms appeared in Central India during the 9th and the 10th centuries.[60] The serpent is a common feature in Ganesha iconography and appears in many forms.[61] According to the Ganesha Purana, Ganesha wrapped the serpent Vasuki around his neck.[62] Other depictions of snakes include use as a sacred thread (IAST: Template:IAST)[63] wrapped around the stomach as a belt, held in a hand, coiled at the ankles, or as a throne. Upon Ganesha's forehead may be a third eye or the sectarian mark (IAST: Template:IAST), which consists of three horizontal lines.[64] The Ganesha Purana prescribes a tilaka mark as well as a crescent moon on the forehead.[65] A distinct form of Ganesha called Bhalachandra (IAST: Template:IAST; "Moon on the Forehead") includes that iconographic element.[66] Ganesha is often described as red in colour.[67] Specific colours are associated with certain forms.[68] Many examples of color associations with specific meditation forms are prescribed in the Sritattvanidhi, a treatise on Hindu iconography. For example, white is associated with his representations as Heramba-Ganapati and Rina-Mochana-Ganapati (Ganapati Who Releases from Bondage).[69] Ekadanta-Ganapati is visualised as blue during meditation in that form.[70]

Vahanas Edit

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The earliest Ganesha images are without a vahana (mount/vehicle).[71] Of the eight incarnations of Ganesha described in the Mudgala Purana, Ganesha uses a mouse (shrew) in five of them, a lion in his incarnation as Vakratunda, a peacock in his incarnation as Vikata, and Shesha, the divine serpent, in his incarnation as Vighnaraja.[72] Mohotkata uses a lion, Template:IAST uses a peacock, Dhumraketu uses a horse, and Gajanana uses a mouse, in the four incarnations of Ganesha listed in the Ganesha Purana. Jain depictions of Ganesha show his vahana variously as a mouse, elephant, tortoise, ram, or peacock.[73]

Ganesha is often shown riding on or attended by a mouse, shrew or rat.[74] Martin-Dubost says that the rat began to appear as the principal vehicle in sculptures of Ganesha in central and western India during the 7th century; the rat was always placed close to his feet.[75] The mouse as a mount first appears in written sources in the Matsya Purana and later in the Brahmananda Purana and Ganesha Purana, where Ganesha uses it as his vehicle in his last incarnation.[76] The Ganapati Atharvashirsa includes a meditation verse on Ganesha that describes the mouse appearing on his flag.[77] The names Template:IAST (mouse-mount) and Template:IAST (rat-banner) appear in the Ganesha Sahasranama.[78]

The mouse is interpreted in several ways. According to Grimes, "Many, if not most of those who interpret Template:IAST's mouse, do so negatively; it symbolizes [[Tamas (philosophy)|Template:IAST]] as well as desire".[79] Along these lines, Michael Wilcockson says it symbolises those who wish to overcome desires and be less selfish.[80] Krishan notes that the rat is destructive and a menace to crops. The Sanskrit word Template:IAST (mouse) is derived from the root Template:IAST (stealing, robbing). It was essential to subdue the rat as a destructive pest, a type of vighna (impediment) that needed to be overcome. According to this theory, showing Ganesha as master of the rat demonstrates his function as Vigneshvara (Lord of Obstacles) and gives evidence of his possible role as a folk grāma-devatā (village deity) who later rose to greater prominence.[81] Martin-Dubost notes a view that the rat is a symbol suggesting that Ganesha, like the rat, penetrates even the most secret places.[82]

Features Edit

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Removal of obstacles Edit

Ganesha is Vighneshvara (Vighnaraja, MarathiVighnaharta), the Lord of Obstacles, both of a material and spiritual order.[83] He is popularly worshipped as a remover of obstacles, though traditionally he also places obstacles in the path of those who need to be checked. Hence, he is often worshipped by the people before they begin anything new.[84] Paul Courtright says that Ganesha's dharma and his raison d'être is to create and remove obstacles.[85]

Krishan notes that some of Ganesha's names reflect shadings of multiple roles that have evolved over time.[24] Dhavalikar ascribes the quick ascension of Ganesha in the Hindu pantheon, and the emergence of the Template:IAST, to this shift in emphasis from Template:IAST (obstacle-creator) to Template:IAST (obstacle-averter).[86] However, both functions continue to be vital to his character.[87]

Buddhi (Intelligence) Edit

Ganesha is considered to be the Lord of letters and learning.[88] In Sanskrit, the word buddhi is a feminine noun that is variously translated as intelligence, wisdom, or intellect.Template:Sfn The concept of buddhi is closely associated with the personality of Ganesha, especially in the Puranic period, when many stories stress his cleverness and love of intelligence. One of Ganesha's names in the Ganesha Purana and the Ganesha Sahasranama is Buddhipriya.[89] This name also appears in a list of 21 names at the end of the Ganesha Sahasranama that Ganesha says are especially important.[90] The word priya can mean "fond of", and in a marital context it can mean "lover" or "husband",[91] so the name may mean either "Fond of Intelligence" or "Buddhi's Husband".[92]

Om Edit

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Ganesha is identified with the Hindu mantra Om, also spelled Aum. The term Template:IAST (Om is his form), when identified with Ganesha, refers to the notion that he personifies the primal sound.[93] The Ganapati Atharvashirsa attests to this association. Chinmayananda translates the relevant passage as follows:Template:Sfn


Some devotees see similarities between the shape of Ganesha's body in iconography and the shape of Om in the Devanāgarī and Tamil scripts.[94]

First chakra Edit

According to Kundalini yoga, Ganesha resides in the first chakra, called Muladhara (Template:IAST). Mula means "original, main"; adhara means "base, foundation". The muladhara chakra is the principle on which the manifestation or outward expansion of primordial Divine Force rests.[95] This association is also attested to in the Ganapati Atharvashirsa. Courtright translates this passage as follows: "You continually dwell in the sacral plexus at the base of the spine [[[:Template:IAST]]]."[96] Thus, Ganesha has a permanent abode in every being at the Muladhara.Template:Sfn Ganesha holds, supports and guides all other chakras, thereby "governing the forces that propel the wheel of life".[95]

Family and consorts Edit

Template:See also

File:Ganesha Kangra miniature 18th century Dubost p51.jpg

Though Ganesha is popularly held to be the son of Shiva and Parvati, the Puranic myths give different versions about his birth.[98] In some he was created by Parvati,[99] in another he was created by Shiva and Parvati,[100] in another he appeared mysteriously and was discovered by Shiva and Parvati[101] or he was born from the elephant headed goddess Malini after she drank Parvati's bath water that had been thrown in the river.[102]

The family includes his brother, the god of war, Kartikeya, who is also called Skanda and Murugan.[103] Regional differences dictate the order of their births. In northern India, Skanda is generally said to be the elder, while in the south, Ganesha is considered the firstborn.[104] In northern India, Skanda was an important martial deity from about 500 BCE to about 600 CE, after which worship of him declined significantly. As Skanda fell, Ganesha rose. Several stories tell of sibling rivalry between the brothers[105] and may reflect sectarian tensions.[106]

Ganesha's marital status, the subject of considerable scholarly review, varies widely in mythological stories.[107] One lesser-known and unpopular pattern of myths identifies Ganesha as an unmarried brahmachari.[108] This view is common in southern India and parts of northern India.[109] Another popularly-accepted mainstream pattern associates him with the concepts of Buddhi (intellect), Siddhi (spiritual power), and Riddhi (prosperity); these qualities are personified as goddesses, said to be Ganesha's wives.[110] He also may be shown with a single consort or a nameless servant (Sanskrit: Template:IAST).[111] Another pattern connects Ganesha with the goddess of culture and the arts, Sarasvati or Template:IAST (particularly in Maharashtra).[112] He is also associated with the goddess of luck and prosperity, Lakshmi.[113] Another pattern, mainly prevalent in the Bengal region, links Ganesha with the banana tree, Kala Bo.[114]

The Shiva Purana says that Ganesha had begotten two sons: Template:IAST (prosperity) and Template:IAST (profit). In northern Indian variants of this story, the sons are often said to be Template:IAST (auspiciousness) and Template:IAST.[115] The 1975 Hindi film Jai Santoshi Maa shows Ganesha married to Riddhi and Siddhi and having a daughter named Santoshi Ma, the goddess of satisfaction. This story has no Puranic basis, but Anita Raina Thapan and Lawrence Cohen cite Santoshi Ma's cult as evidence of Ganesha's continuing evolution as a popular deity.[116]

Worship and festivals Edit

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Ganesha is worshipped on many religious and secular occasions, especially at the beginning of ventures such as buying a vehicle or starting a business.[117] K.N. Somayaji says, "there can hardly be a [Hindu] home [in India] which does not house an idol of Ganapati. ... Ganapati, being the most popular deity in India, is worshipped by almost all castes and in all parts of the country".[118] Devotees believe that if Ganesha is propitiated, he grants success, prosperity and protection against adversity.[119]

Ganesha is a non-sectarian deity. Hindus of all denominations invoke him at the beginning of prayers, important undertakings, and religious ceremonies.[120] Dancers and musicians, particularly in southern India, begin art performances such as the Bharatnatyam dance with a prayer to Ganesha.[67] Mantras such as Om Shri Template:IAST Namah (Om, salutation to the Illustrious Ganesha) are often used. One of the most famous mantras associated with Ganesha is Om Template:IAST Ganapataye Namah (Om, Template:IAST, Salutation to the Lord of Hosts).[121]

Devotees offer Ganesha sweets such as modaka and small sweet balls called laddus.[122] He is often shown carrying a bowl of sweets, called a Template:IAST.[123] Because of his identification with the color red, he is often worshipped with red sandalwood paste (Template:IAST)[124] or red flowers. Template:IAST grass (Cynodon dactylon) and other materials are also used in his worship.[125]

Festivals associated with Ganesh are Ganesh Chaturthi or Vināyaka chaturthī in the [[paksha|Template:IAST]] (the fourth day of the waxing moon) in the month of Bhadrapada (August/September) and the Ganesh Jayanti (Ganesha's birthday) celebrated on the cathurthī of the Template:IAST (fourth day of the waxing moon) in the month of magha (January/February)."[126]

Ganesha Chaturthi Edit

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An annual festival honours Ganesha for ten days, starting on Ganesha Chaturthi, which typically falls in late August or early September.[127] The festival begins with people bringing in clay idols of Ganesha, symbolising the god's visit. The festival culminates on the day of Ananta Chaturdashi, when the idols (murtis) are immersed in the most convenient body of water.[128] Some families have a tradition of immersion on the 2nd, 3rd, 5th, or 7th day. In 1893, Lokmanya Tilak transformed this annual Ganesha festival from private family celebrations into a grand public event.[129] He did so "to bridge the gap between the Brahmins and the non-Brahmins and find an appropriate context in which to build a new grassroots unity between them" in his nationalistic strivings against the British in Maharashtra.[130] Because of Ganesha's wide appeal as "the god for Everyman", Tilak chose him as a rallying point for Indian protest against British rule.[131] Tilak was the first to install large public images of Ganesha in pavilions, and he established the practice of submerging all the public images on the tenth day.[132] Today, Hindus across India celebrate the Ganapati festival with great fervour, though it is most popular in the state of Maharashtra.[133][134] The festival also assumes huge proportions in Mumbai, Pune, and in the surrounding belt of Ashtavinayaka temples.

Temples Edit



In Hindu temples, Ganesha is depicted in various ways: as a subordinate deity (Template:IAST); as a deity related to the principal deity (Template:IAST); or as the principal deity of the temple (Template:IAST).[135] As the god of transitions, he is placed at the doorway of many Hindu temples to keep out the unworthy, which is analogous to his role as Parvati's doorkeeper.[136] In addition, several shrines are dedicated to Ganesha himself, of which the Ashtavinayak (Sanskrit: अष्टविनायक; Template:IAST; lit. "eight Ganesha (shrines)") in Maharashtra are particularly well known. Located within a 100-kilometer radius of the city of Pune, each of the eight shrines celebrates a particular form of Ganapati, complete with its own lore.[137] The eight shrines are: Morgaon, Siddhatek, Pali, Mahad, Theur, Lenyadri, Ozar and Ranjangaon.

There are many other important Ganesha temples at the following locations: Wai in Maharashtra; Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh; Jodhpur, Nagaur and Raipur (Pali) in Rajasthan; Baidyanath in Bihar; Baroda, Dholaka, and Valsad in Gujarat and Dhundiraj Temple in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. Prominent Ganesha temples in southern India include the following: Kanipakam in Andhra Pradesh; the Rockfort Ucchi Pillayar Temple at Tiruchirapalli in Tamil Nadu; Kottarakkara, Pazhavangadi, Kasargod in Kerala; Hampi, and Idagunji in Karnataka; and Bhadrachalam in Telangana.[138]

T. A. Gopinatha notes, "Every village however small has its own image of Template:IAST (Vigneshvara) with or without a temple to house it in. At entrances of villages and forts, below Template:IAST (Sacred fig) trees ... in a niche ... in temples of Template:IAST (Vishnu) as well as Template:IAST (Shiva) and also in separate shrines specially constructed in Template:IAST temples ... the figure of Template:IAST is invariably seen."[139] Ganesha temples have also been built outside of India, including Southeast Asia, Nepal (including the four Vinayaka shrines in the Kathmandu Valley),[140] and in several western countries.[141]

Rise to prominence Edit

First appearance Edit

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Ganesha appeared in his classic form as a clearly-recognizable deity with well-defined iconographic attributes in the early 4th to 5th centuries CE.Template:Sfn Some of the earliest known Ganesha images include two images found in eastern Afghanistan. The first image was discovered in the ruins north of Kabul along with those of Surya and Shiva. It is dated to the 4th-century.Template:Sfn The second image found in Gardez has an inscription on Ganesha pedestal that has helped date it to the 5th-century.Template:Sfn Another Ganesha sculpture is embedded in the walls of Cave 6 of the Udayagiri Caves in Madhya Pradesh. This is dated to the 5th-century.Template:Sfn An early iconic image of Ganesha with elephant head, a bowl of sweets and a goddess sitting in his lap has been found in the ruins of the Bhumara Temple in Madhya Pradesh, and this is dated to the 5th-century Gupta period.[144]Template:Sfn[145] Other recent discoveries, such as one from Ramgarh Hill, are also dated to the 4th or 5th centuries.Template:Sfn An independent cult with Ganesha as the primary deity was well established by about the 10th century.Template:Sfn Narain summarises the lack of evidence about Ganesha's history before the 5th century as follows:Template:Sfn


The evidence for more ancient Ganesha, suggests Narain, may reside outside Brahmanic or Sanskritic traditions, or outside geocultural boundaries of India.Template:Sfn Ganesha appears in China by the 6th century, states Brown,Template:Sfn and his artistic images in temple setting as "remover of obstacles" in South Asia appear by about 400 CE.Template:Sfn He is, states Bailey, recognised as goddess Parvati's son and integrated into Shaivism theology by early centuries of the common era.Template:Sfn

Possible influences Edit

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Courtright reviews various speculative theories about the early history of Ganesha, including supposed tribal traditions and animal cults, and dismisses all of them in this way:[146] Template:Quote

Thapan's book on the development of Ganesha devotes a chapter to speculations about the role elephants had in early India but concludes that "although by the second century CE the elephant-headed Template:IAST form exists it cannot be presumed to represent Template:IAST. There is no evidence of a deity by this name having an elephant or elephant-headed form at this early stage. Template:IAST had yet to make his debut."[147]

In 1993, a metal plate depiction of an elephant-headed figure, interpreted as Ganesha, was discovered in Lorestan Province, Iran, dating back to 1,200 BCE.[148][149] First terracotta images of Ganesha are from 1st century CE found in Ter, Pal, Verrapuram, and Chandraketugarh. These figures are small, with an elephant head, two arms, and chubby physique.[150] The earliest Ganesha icons in stone were carved in Mathura during Kushan times (2nd–3rd centuries CE).[150]

One theory of the origin of Ganesha is that he gradually came to prominence in connection with the four Vinayakas (Template:IAST).[151] In Hindu mythology, the Template:IAST were a group of four troublesome demons who created obstacles and difficulties[152] but who were easily propitiated.[153] The name Vināyaka is a common name for Ganesha both in the Template:IAST and in Buddhist Tantras.[21] Krishan is one of the academics who accept this view, stating flatly of Ganesha, "He is a non-Vedic god. His origin is to be traced to the four Vināyakas, evil spirits, of the Mānavagŗhyasūtra (7th–4th century BCE) who cause various types of evil and suffering".[154] Depictions of elephant-headed human figures, which some identify with Ganesha, appear in Indian art and coinage as early as the 2nd century.[155] According to Ellawala, the elephant-headed Ganesha as lord of the Ganas was known to the people of Sri Lanka in the early pre-Christian era.Template:Sfn

Vedic and epic literature Edit

File:Ganesa writing the Mahabharat.jpeg

The title "Leader of the group" (Sanskrit: Template:IAST) occurs twice in the Rig Veda, but in neither case does it refer to the modern Ganesha. The term appears in RV 2.23.1 as a title for Brahmanaspati, according to commentators.[156] While this verse doubtless refers to Brahmanaspati, it was later adopted for worship of Ganesha and is still used today.[157] In rejecting any claim that this passage is evidence of Ganesha in the Rig Veda, Ludo Rocher says that it "clearly refers to Template:IAST—who is the deity of the hymn—and Template:IAST only".[158] Equally clearly, the second passage (RV 10.112.9) refers to Indra,[159] who is given the epithet 'Template:IAST', translated "Lord of the companies (of the Maruts)."[160] However, Rocher notes that the more recent Ganapatya literature often quotes the Rigvedic verses to give Vedic respectability to Ganesha.[161]

The Sangam period Tamil poet Avvaiyar (3rd century BCE), invokes Ganesha while preparing the invitation to the three Tamil Kingdoms for giving away in marriage of Angavay and Sangavay of Ceylon in marriage to the King of Tirucovalur (pp. 57–59).[162]

Two verses in texts belonging to Black Yajurveda, Template:IAST (2.9.1)[163] and Template:IAST (10.1),[164] appeal to a deity as "the tusked one" (Template:IAST), "elephant-faced" (Hastimukha), and "with a curved trunk" (Template:IAST). These names are suggestive of Ganesha, and the 14th century commentator Sayana explicitly establishes this identification.[165] The description of Dantin, possessing a twisted trunk (Template:IAST) and holding a corn-sheaf, a sugar cane,[166] and a club,[167] is so characteristic of the Puranic Ganapati that Heras says "we cannot resist to accept his full identification with this Vedic Dantin".[168] However, Krishan considers these hymns to be post-Vedic additions.[169] Thapan reports that these passages are "generally considered to have been interpolated". Dhavalikar says, "the references to the elephant-headed deity in the Template:IAST have been proven to be very late interpolations, and thus are not very helpful for determining the early formation of the deity".[170]

Ganesha does not appear in the Indian epic literature that is dated to the Vedic period. A late interpolation to the epic poem Mahabharata (1.1.75–79Template:Efn) says that the sage Vyasa (Template:IAST) asked Ganesha to serve as his scribe to transcribe the poem as he dictated it to him. Ganesha agreed but only on the condition that Vyasa recites the poem uninterrupted, that is, without pausing. The sage agreed but found that to get any rest he needed to recite very complex passages so Ganesha would have to ask for clarifications. The story is not accepted as part of the original text by the editors of the critical edition of the Mahabharata,[171] in which the twenty-line story is relegated to a footnote in an appendix.[172] The story of Ganesha acting as the scribe occurs in 37 of the 59 manuscripts consulted during the preparation of the critical edition.[173] Ganesha's association with mental agility and learning is one reason he is shown as scribe for Template:IAST's dictation of the Mahabharata in this interpolation.[174] Richard L. Brown dates the story to the 8th century, and Moriz Winternitz concludes that it was known as early as c. 900, but it was not added to the Mahabharata some 150 years later. Winternitz also notes that a distinctive feature in South Indian manuscripts of the Mahabharata is their omission of this Ganesha legend.[175] The term Template:IAST is found in some recensions of the Template:IAST and Template:IAST that are regarded as interpolations.[176] A reference to Template:IAST ("Creator of Obstacles") in Vanaparva is also believed to be an interpolation and does not appear in the critical edition.[177]

Puranic period Edit


File:Ganesha pachayatana.jpg

Stories about Ganesha often occur in the Puranic corpus. Brown notes while the Puranas "defy precise chronological ordering", the more detailed narratives of Ganesha's life are in the late texts, c. 600–1300.[178] Yuvraj Krishan says that the Puranic myths about the birth of Ganesha and how he acquired an elephant's head are in the later Puranas, which were composed of c. 600 onwards. He elaborates on the matter to say that references to Ganesha in the earlier Puranas, such as the Vayu and Brahmanda Puranas, are later interpolations made during the 7th to 10th centuries.[179]

In his survey of Ganesha's rise to prominence in Sanskrit literature, Ludo Rocher notes that:[180]


Ganesha's rise to prominence was codified in the 9th century when he was formally included as one of the five primary deities of Smartism. The 9th-century philosopher Adi Shankara popularised the "worship of the five forms" (Panchayatana puja) system among orthodox Brahmins of the Smarta tradition.[181] This worship practice invokes the five deities Ganesha, Vishnu, Shiva, Devi, and Surya.[182] Adi Shankara instituted the tradition primarily to unite the principal deities of these five major sects on an equal status. This formalised the role of Ganesha as a complementary deity.

Scriptures Edit



Once Ganesha was accepted as one of the five principal deities of Hinduism, some Hindus chose Ganesha as their principal deity. They developed the Ganapatya tradition, as seen in the Ganesha Purana and the Mudgala Purana.[183]

The date of composition for the Ganesha Purana and the Mudgala Purana—and their dating relative to one another—has sparked academic debate. Both works were developed over time and contain age-layered strata. Anita Thapan reviews comment about dating and provide her own judgment. "It seems likely that the core of the Ganesha Purana appeared around the twelfth and thirteenth centuries", she says, "but was later interpolated."[184] Lawrence W. Preston considers the most reasonable date for the Ganesha Purana to be between 1100 and 1400, which coincides with the apparent age of the sacred sites mentioned by the text.[185]

R.C. Hazra suggests that the Mudgala Purana is older than the Ganesha Purana, which he dates between 1100 and 1400.[186] However, Phyllis Granoff finds problems with this relative dating and concludes that the Mudgala Purana was the last of the philosophical texts concerned with Ganesha. She bases her reasoning on the fact that, among other internal evidence, the Mudgala Purana specifically mentions the Ganesha Purana as one of the four Puranas (the Brahma, the Brahmanda, the Ganesha, and the Mudgala Puranas) which deal at length with Ganesha.[187] While the kernel of the text must be old, it was interpolated until the 17th and 18th centuries as the worship of Ganapati became more important in certain regions.[188] Another highly regarded scripture, the Ganapati Atharvashirsa, was probably composed during the 16th or 17th centuries.[189]

Ganesha Sahasranama is part of the Puranic literature, and is a litany of a thousand names and attributes of Ganesha. Each name in the sahasranama conveys a different meaning and symbolises a different aspect of Ganesha. Versions of the Ganesha Sahasranama are found in the Ganesha Purana.Template:Sfn

One of the most important Sanskrit texts that enjoys authority in Ganapatya tradition, according to John Grimes, is the Ganapati Atharvashirsa.Template:Sfn

Beyond India and Hinduism Edit


Commercial and cultural contacts extended India's influence in Western and Southeast Asia. Ganesha is one of a number of Hindu deities who consequently reached foreign lands.[190]

Ganesha was particularly worshipped by traders and merchants, who went out of India for commercial ventures.[191] From approximately the 10th century onwards, new networks of exchange developed including the formation of trade guilds and a resurgence of money circulation. During this time, Ganesha became the principal deity associated with traders.[192] The earliest inscription invoking Ganesha before any other deity is associated with the merchant community.[193]

Hindus migrated to Maritime Southeast Asia and took their culture, including Ganesha, with them.Template:Sfn Statues of Ganesha are found throughout the region, often beside Shiva sanctuaries. The forms of Ganesha found in the Hindu art of Philippines, Java, Bali, and Borneo show specific regional influences.[194] The spread of Hindu culture throughout Southeast Asia established Ganesha worship in modified forms in Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand. In Indochina, Hinduism and Buddhism were practised side by side, and mutual influences can be seen in the iconography of Ganesha in the region.Template:Sfn In Thailand, Cambodia, and among the Hindu classes of the Chams in Vietnam, Ganesha was mainly thought of as a remover of obstacles.[195] Today in Buddhist Thailand, Ganesha is regarded as a remover of obstacles, the god of success.[195]

Before the arrival of Islam, Afghanistan had close cultural ties with India, and the adoration of both Hindu and Buddhist deities was practised. Examples of sculptures from the 5th to the 7th centuries have survived, suggesting that the worship of Ganesha was then in vogue in the region.[196]

Ganesha appears in Mahayana Buddhism, not only in the form of the Buddhist god Template:IAST, but also as a Hindu demon form with the same name.Template:Sfn His image appears in Buddhist sculptures during the late Gupta period.Template:Sfn As the Buddhist god Template:IAST, he is often shown dancing. This form, called Template:IAST Ganapati, was popular in northern India, later adopted in Nepal, and then in Tibet.Template:Sfn In Nepal, the Hindu form of Ganesha, known as Heramba, is popular; he has five heads and rides a lion.Template:Sfn Tibetan representations of Ganesha show ambivalent views of him.[197] A Tibetan rendering of Ganapati is tshogs bdag.[198] In one Tibetan form, he is shown being trodden under foot by [[Mahakala|Template:IAST]],(Shiva) a popular Tibetan deity.[199] Other depictions show him as the Destroyer of Obstacles, and sometimes dancing.[200] Ganesha appears in China and Japan in forms that show distinct regional character. In northern China, the earliest known stone statue of Ganesha carries an inscription dated to 531.[201] In Japan, where Ganesha is known as Kangiten, the Ganesha cult was first mentioned in 806.[202]

The canonical literature of Jainism does not mention the worship of Ganesha.[203] However, Ganesha is worshipped by most Jains, for whom he appears to have taken over certain functions of the god of wealth, Kubera.[204] Jain ties with the trading community support the idea that Jainism took up Ganesha worship as a result of commercial connections.[205] The earliest known Jain Ganesha statue dates to about the 9th century.[206] A 15th-century Jain text lists procedures for the installation of its images.[203] Images of Ganesha appear in the Jain temples of Rajasthan and Gujarat.[207]


Yag-kosha is a member of the elephant-headed humanoid race from the planet Yag. He claimed to be the last survivor of his kind of Earth. In the Hyborian Age, Yag-kosha became the mentor of the human sorcerer Yara, but Yara eventually used the magical secrets he had learned to betray and enslave Yag-kosha. Eventually Yag-kosha was slain at his own request by Conan the Cimmerian, but his soul survived the death of his physical body and was able to exact revenge on Yara.

Appearances Robert E. Howard - "The Tower of the Elephant"


Yag-Kosha is a being being from beyond the stars enslaved by the evil sorcerer Yara in his tower, keeping as source for his malevolent power. He is vaguely humanoid in form, having eyes, hands, legs, and a mouth capable of speech. His skin is leathery grey, like an elephant, and his head bears many features similar to elephants, such as tusks, large ears, and a trunk.

Long before the dawn of man, and before even the Hyborian age began on Earth, a conflict raged on the far-distant world of Yag. The noble and peaceful people retreated into exile across the stars, coming at last to Earth. Here they hid in the deep jungles, living simple lives of hunter-gatherers, and not interfering with the evolution and history of mankind. However, as time went by, more and more of the people died, and at last only Yag-Kosha remained. Deep in the jungles of Khitai, he adopted a tribe of humans, teaching them the ways of civilization and being worshipped as a god. Then one day Yag-Kosha met Yara. Yara was a student of lore and sorcery, and had come to Yag-Kosha to learn from the wise and knowledgeable alien. Yag-Kosha made an effort to teach Yara humility and morality, but the sorcerer was interested in only power. He betrayed his mentor, confining him and torturing him until he could draw more secrets of sorcery from the peaceful exile. Back in the west, he tortured Yag-Kosha and made him a magical slave, forcing him to construct the Elephant Tower and perform other deeds. In this time, over hundreds of years, he withered from torture and confinement, and knew only suffering.

When the young barbarian Conan hears about the mysterious tower and goes to steal from its treasure, he meets Yag-Kosha, his confinement now left him blinded, withered and atrophied, with stick-thin limbs he cannot move. His body is marked with scars and burns from his many years of torture and torment. Helpless, he convinced Conan to slay him as part of a final spell which gave him revenge over the evil Yara, and in doing so, was reincarnated as Yogah of Yag. He destroyed the Elephant Tower, and flew away to parts unknown.

General Information

Super Name


Real Name

Yogah of Yag



Dark Horse Comics





Character Type


First Appearance

Conan the Barbarian #4 - The Tower of the Elephant!

Appears in

10 issues






Divine Powers






Popular on Comic Vine

Notes Edit


Citations Edit

  1. Rao, p. 1.
    • Brown, p. 1. "Template:IAST is often said to be the most worshipped god in India."
    • Getty, p. 1. "Template:IAST, Lord of the Template:IAST, although among the latest deities to be admitted to the Brahmanic pantheon, was, and still is, the most universally adored of all the Hindu gods and his image is found in practically every part of India."
    • Rao, p. 1.
    • Martin-Dubost, pp. 2–4.
    • Brown, p. 1.
    • Chapter XVII, "The Travels Abroad", in: Nagar (1992), pp. 175–187. For a review of Ganesha's geographic spread and popularity outside of India.
    • Getty, pp. 37–88, For discussion of the spread of Ganesha worship to Nepal, Chinese Turkestan, Tibet, Burma, Siam, Indo-China, Java, Bali, Borneo, China, and Japan
    • Martin-Dubost, pp. 311–320.
    • Thapan, p. 13.
    • Pal, p. x.
  2. Martin-Dubost, p. 2.
  3. For Ganesha's role as an eliminator of obstacles, see commentary on Template:IAST, verse 12 in Template:Harvnb
  4. Template:Harvnb
  5. These ideas are so common that Courtright uses them in the title of his book, Ganesha: Lord of Obstacles, Lord of Beginnings.
  6. ==Further reading==
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    • Template loop detected: Template:Cite book
    • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |
  7. Narain, A.K. "Template:IAST: The Idea and the Icon" in Template:Harvnb
  8. ==Further reading==
    • Template loop detected: Template:Cite book
    • Template loop detected: Template:Cite book
    • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |
  9. ==Further reading==
    • Template loop detected: Template:Cite book
    • Template loop detected: Template:Cite book
    • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |
  10. For history of the development of the Template:IAST and their relationship to the wide geographic dispersion of Ganesha worship, see: Chapter 6, "The Template:IAST" in: Thapan (1997), pp. 176–213.
    • Narain, A.K. "Template:IAST: A Protohistory of the Idea and the Icon". Brown, pp. 21–22.
    • Apte, p. 395.
  11. For the derivation of the name and relationship with the Template:IAST, see: Martin-Dubost. p. 2.
  12. The word gaṇa is interpreted in this metaphysical sense by Bhāskararāya in his commentary on the Template:IAST. See in particular commentary on verse 6 including names Template:IAST and Template:IAST in: Template:Harvnb.
  13. Rigveda Mandala 2 Template:Webarchive, Hymn 2.23.1, Wikisource, Quote: गणानां त्वा गणपतिं हवामहे कविं कवीनामुपमश्रवस्तमम् । ज्येष्ठराजं ब्रह्मणां ब्रह्मणस्पत आ नः शृण्वन्नूतिभिः सीद सादनम् ॥१॥; For translation, see Grimes (1995), pp. 17–19
  14. Y. Krishan, Template:IAST: Unravelling an Enigma, 1999, p. 6): "Pārvati who created an image of Template:IAST out of her bodily impurities but which became endowed with life after immersion in the sacred waters of the Gangā. Therefore he is said to have two mothers—Pārvati and Gangā and hence called dvaimātura and also Gāngeya."
  15. Krishan p. 6
  16. 21.0 21.1 Thapan, p. 20.
  17. For the history of the Template:IAST sites and a description of pilgrimage practices related to them, see: Mate, pp. 1–25.
  18. These ideas are so common that Courtright uses them in the title of his book, Ganesha: Lord of Obstacles, Lord of Beginnings. For the name Vighnesha, see: Template:Harvnb
  19. 24.0 24.1 For Krishan's views on Ganesha's dual nature see his quote: "Template:IAST has a dual nature; as Vināyaka, as a Template:IAST, he is Template:IAST, and as Template:IAST he is Template:IAST, a Template:IAST." Krishan, p. viii.
  20. Martin-Dubost, p. 367.
  21. Narain, A.K. "Template:IAST: The Idea and the Icon". Brown, p. 25.
  22. Thapan, p. 62.
  23. Template:Citation
  24. ==Further reading==
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    • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |
  25. Template:Citation
  26. ==Further reading==
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  27. Pal, p. ix.
    • Martin-Dubost, for a comprehensive review of iconography abundantly illustrated with pictures.
    • Chapter X, "Development of the Iconography of Template:IAST", in: Template:Harvnb, for a survey of iconography with emphasis on developmental themes, well-illustrated with plates.
    • Pal, for a richly illustrated collection of studies on specific aspects of Ganesha with a focus on art and iconography.
  28. Brown, p. 175.
  29. Martin-Dubost, p. 213. In the upper right corner, the statue is dated as (973–1200).
  30. Pal, p. vi. The picture on this page depicts a stone statue in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art that is dated as c. 12th century. Pal shows an example of this form dated c. 13th century on p. viii.
  31. Brown, p. 176.
  32. See photograph 2, "Large Ganesh", in: Pal, p. 16.
  33. For the human-headed form of Ganesha in:
    • Martin-Dubost, pp. 197–198.
    • photograph 9, "Ganesh images being taken for immersion", in: Pal, pp. 22–23. For an example of a large image of this type being carried in a festival procession.
    • Pal, p. 25, For two similar statues about to be immersed.
    • Pal, pp. 41–64. For many examples of Ganesha dancing.
    • Brown, p. 183. For the popularity of the dancing form.
  34. Four-armed Template:IAST. Miniature of Nurpur school, circa 1810. Museum of Chandigarh. For this image see: Martin-Dubost (1997), p. 64, which describes it as follows: "On a terrace leaning against a thick white bolster, Template:IAST is seated on a bed of pink lotus petals arranged on a low seat to the back of which is fixed a parasol. The elephant-faced god, with his body entirely red, is dressed in a yellow dhoti and a yellow scarf fringed with blue. Two white mice decorated with a pretty golden necklace salute Template:IAST by joining their tiny feet together. Template:IAST counts on his rosary in his lower right hand; his two upper hands brandish an axe and an elephant goad; his fourth hand holds the broken left tusk."
  35. Nagar, p. 77.
  36. Brown, p. 3.
  37. Nagar, p. 78.
  38. Brown, p. 76.
  39. Brown, p. 77.
  40. Brown, pp. 77–78.
  41. Brown, pp. 76–77.
  42. For creation of Ganesha from Shiva's laughter and subsequent curse by Shiva, see Varaha Purana 23.17 as cited in Brown: p. 77.
  43. Heras, p. 29.
  44. Granoff, Phyllis. "Template:IAST as Metaphor". Brown, p. 90.
  45. "Ganesha in Indian Plastic Art" and Passim. Nagar, p. 101.
  46. Granoff, Phyllis. "Template:IAST as Metaphor". Brown, p. 91.
  47. For translation of Udara as "belly" see: Apte, p. 268.
    • Br. P.
    • Thapan, p. 200, For a description of how a variant of this story is used in the Mudgala Purana 2.56.38–9
  48. For an iconographic chart showing number of arms and attributes classified by source and named form, see: Nagar, pp. 191–195. Appendix I.
  49. For history and prevalence of forms with various arms and the four-armed form as one of the standard types see: Template:Harvnb.
    • Template:Harvnb, For two-armed forms as an earlier development than four-armed forms.
    • Brown, p. 103. Maruti Nandan Tiwari and Kamal Giri say in "Images of Template:IAST In Jainism" that the presence of only two arms on a Ganesha image points to an early date.
  50. Martin-Dubost, p. 120.
    • Martin-Dubost, p. 202, For an overview of snake images in Ganesha iconography.
    • Template:Harvnb, For an overview of snake images in Ganesha iconography.
    • Martin-Dubost, p. 202. For the Ganesha Purana references for Template:IAST around the neck and use of a serpent-throne.
    • Template:Harvnb. For the story of wrapping Template:IAST around the neck and Template:IAST around the belly and for the name in his sahasranama as Template:IAST ("Who has a serpent around his neck"), which refers to this standard iconographic element.
    • Martin-Dubost, p. 202. For the text of a stone inscription dated 1470 identifying Ganesha's sacred thread as the serpent Template:IAST.
    • Nagar, p. 92. For the snake as a common type of Template:IAST for Ganesha.
    • Nagar, p. 81. tilaka with three horizontal lines.
    • the Template:IAST in: Sharma (1993 edition of Ganesha Purana) I.46.1. For Ganesa visualized as Template:IAST (having three eyes).
    • Nagar, p. 81. For a citation to Ganesha Purana I.14.21–25 and For a citation to Padma Purana as prescribing the crescent for decoration of the forehead of Ganesha
    • Bailey (1995), pp. 198–199. For the translation of Ganesha Purana I.14, which includes a meditation form with the moon on forehead.
    • Nagar, p. 81. For Bhālacandra as a distinct form worshipped.
    • Sharma (1993 edition of Ganesha Purana) I.46.15. For the name Bhālacandra appearing in the Ganesha Sahasranama
  51. 67.0 67.1 Nagar, Preface.
  52. "The Colors of Ganesha". Martin-Dubost, pp. 221–230.
  53. Martin-Dubost, pp. 224–228
  54. Martin-Dubost, p. 228.
  55. Krishan, pp. 48, 89, 92.
  56. Krishan, p. 49.
    • Krishan, pp. 48–49.
    • Bailey (1995), p. 348. For the Ganesha Purana story of Template:IAST with the peacock mount (GP I.84.2–3)
    • Maruti Nandan Tiwari and Kamal Giri, "Images of Template:IAST In Jainism", in: Brown, pp. 101–102.
    • Nagar. Preface.
    • Martin-Dubost, pp. 231–244.
  57. See note on figure 43 in: Martin-Dubost, p. 144.
  58. Citations to Matsya Purana 260.54, Brahmananda Purana Lalitamahatmya XXVII, and Ganesha Purana 2.134–136 are provided by: Martin-Dubost, p. 231.
  59. Martin-Dubost, p. 232.
  60. For Template:IAST see v. 6. For Ākhuketana see v. 67. In: Template:IAST. (Template:IAST, 1991). Source text with a commentary by Template:IAST in Sanskrit.
  61. For a review of different interpretations, and quotation, see: Grimes (1995), p. 86.
  62. A Student's Guide to AS Religious Studies for the OCR Specification, by Michael Wilcockson, p. 117
  63. Krishan pp. 49–50.
    • Martin-Dubost, p. 231.
    • Rocher, Ludo. "Template:IAST's Rise to Prominence in Sanskrit Literature", in: Brown (1991), p. 73. For mention of the interpretation that "the rat is 'the animal that finds its way to every place,'"
  64. "Lord of Removal of Obstacles", a common name, appears in the title of Courtright's Template:IAST: Lord of Obstacles, Lord of Beginnings. For equivalent Sanskrit names Vighneśvara and Vighnarāja, see: Courtright, p. 136.
  65. ==Further reading==
    • ==Further reading==
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    • ==Further reading==
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    • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |
  66. Courtright, p. 136.
  67. For Dhavilkar's views on Ganesha's shifting role, see Dhavalikar, M.K. "Template:IAST: Myth and reality" in Template:Harvnb
  68. Brown, p. 6.
  69. Nagar, p. 5.
  70. Ganesha Purana I.46, v. 5 of the Ganesha Sahasranama section in GP-1993, Sharma edition. It appears in verse 10 of the version as given in the Bhaskararaya commentary.
  71. Sharma edition, GP-1993 I.46, verses 204–206. The Bailey edition uses a variant text, and where Sharma reads Buddhipriya, Bailey translates Granter-of-lakhs.
  72. Practical Sanskrit Dictionary By Arthur Anthony McDonell; p. 187 (priya); Published 2004; Motilal Banarsidass Publ; Template:ISBN
  73. Krishan 1999; pp. 60–70 discusses Ganesha as "Buddhi's Husband".
  74. Grimes, p. 77.
  75. For examples of both, see: Grimes, pp. 79–80.
  76. 95.0 95.1 Tantra Unveiled: Seducing the Forces of Matter & Spirit By Rajmani Tigunait; Contributor Deborah Willoughby; Published 1999; Himalayan Institute Press; p. 83; Template:ISBN
  77. Translation. Courtright, p. 253.
  78. This work is reproduced and described in Martin-Dubost (1997), p. 51, which describes it as follows: "This square shaped miniature shows us in a Himalayan landscape the god Template:IAST sweetly pouring water from his Template:IAST on the head of baby Template:IAST. Seated comfortably on the meadow, Template:IAST balances with her left hand the baby Template:IAST with four arms with a red body and naked, adorned only with jewels, tiny anklets and a golden chain around his stomach, a necklace of pearls, bracelets and armlets."
    • Nagar, pp. 7–14. For a summary of Puranic variants of birth stories.
    • Martin-Dubost, pp. 41–82. Chapter 2, "Stories of Birth According to the Template:IAST".
  79. Shiva Purana IV. 17.47–57. Matsya Purana 154.547.
  80. Template:IAST Purana 23.18–59.
  81. For summary of Brahmavaivarta Purana, Ganesha Khanda, 10.8–37, see: Nagar, pp. 11–13.
  82. ==Further reading==
    • Template loop detected: Template:Cite book
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    • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |
  83. For a summary of variant names for Skanda, see: Thapan, p. 300.
  84. Khokar and Saraswati, p.4.
  85. Brown, pp. 4, 79.
  86. Gupta, p. 38.
  87. For a review, see: Cohen, Lawrence. "The Wives of Template:IAST". Brown, pp. 115–140
  88. For discussion on celibacy of Ganesha, see: Cohen, Lawrence, "The Wives of Template:IAST", in: Template:Harvnb.
  89. For a review of associations with Buddhi, Siddhi, Riddhi, and other figures, and the statement "In short the spouses of Template:IAST are the personifications of his powers, manifesting his functional features...", see: Template:Harvnb.
  90. For single consort or a nameless Template:IAST (servant), see: Cohen, Lawrence, "The Wives of Template:IAST", in: Template:Harvnb.
  91. For associations with Śarda and Sarasvati and the identification of those goddesses with one another, see: Cohen, Lawrence, "The Wives of Template:IAST", in: Template:Harvnb.
  92. For associations with Lakshmi see: Cohen, Lawrence, "The Wives of Template:IAST", in: Template:Harvnb.
  93. For discussion of the Kala Bou, see: Cohen, Lawrence, "The Wives of Template:IAST", in: Template:Harvnb.
  94. For statement regarding sons, see: Cohen, Lawrence, "The Wives of Template:IAST", in: Template:Harvnb.
    • Cohen, Lawrence. "The Wives of Template:IAST". Brown, p. 130.
    • Thapan, pp. 15–16, 230, 239, 242, 251.
  95. Krishan, pp. 1–3
  96. K.N. Somayaji, Concept of Ganesha, p. 1 as quoted in Krishan, pp. 2–3
  97. Krishan, p.38
  98. For worship of Ganesha by "followers of all sects and denominations, Saivites, Vaisnavites, Buddhists, and Jainas" see Template:Harvnb
  99. Grimes, p. 27
  100. The term modaka applies to all regional varieties of cakes or sweets offered to Ganesha. Martin-Dubost, p. 204.
  101. Martin-Dubost, p. 204.
  102. Martin-Dubost, p. 369.
  103. Martin-Dubost, pp. 95–99.
  104. Thapan, p. 215
  105. For the fourth waxing day in Template:IAST being dedicated to Ganesa (Template:IAST) see: Bhattacharyya, B., "Festivals and Sacred Days", in: Bhattacharyya, volume IV, p. 483.
  106. The Experience of Hinduism: Essays on Religion in Maharashtra; Edited By Eleanor Zelliot, Maxine Berntsen, pp. 76–94 ("The Ganesh Festival in Maharashtra: Some Observations" by Paul B. Courtright); 1988; SUNY Press; Template:ISBN
  107. Metcalf and Metcalf, p. 150.
    • Brown (1992), p. 9.
    • Thapan, p. 225. For Tilak's role in converting the private family festivals to a public event in support of Indian nationalism.
    • Momin, A.R., The Legacy of G.S. Ghurye: A Centennial Festschrift, p. 95.
    • Brown (1991), p. 9. For Ganesha's appeal as "the god for Everyman" as a motivation for Tilak.
  108. For Tilak as the first to use large public images in Template:IAST (pavilions or tents) see: Thapan, p. 225.
  109. For Ganesh Chaturthi as the most popular festival in Maharashtra, see: Thapan, p. 226.
  110. "Template:IAST in a Regional Setting". Courtright, pp. 202–247.
  111. Krishan, p. 92
  112. Brown, p. 3
  113. Grimes, pp. 110–112
  114. Krishan, pp. 91–92
  115. T.A. Gopinatha; Elements of Hindu Iconography, pp. 47–48 as quoted in Krishan, p. 2
  116. Krishan, pp. 147–158
  117. ==Further reading==
    • ==Further reading==
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    • ==Further reading==
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    • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |
  118. For photograph of statue and details of inscription, see: Dhavalikar, M.K., "Template:IAST: Myth and Reality", in: Template:Harvnb.
  119. Template:Citation
  120. Nagar, p. 4.
  121. ==Further reading==
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  122. Courtright, pp. 10–11.
  123. Thapan, p. 75.
  124. ==Further reading==
    • Template loop detected: Template:Cite book
    • Template loop detected: Template:Cite book
    • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |
  125. "Loving Ganeśa: Hinduism's Endearing Elephant-faced God", by Subramuniya, p. 268
  126. 150.0 150.1 Kumar, Ajit, 2007. "A Unique Early Historic Terracotta Ganesa Image from Pal" in Kala, The Journal of Indian Art History Congress, Vol XI. (2006–2007), pp. 89–91
    • Passim. Thapan.
    • Rocher, Ludo. "Gaṇeśa's Rise to Prominence in Sanskrit Literature". Brown, pp. 70–72.
  127. Aitareya Brāhmana, I, 21.
  128. Bhandarkar. Vaisnavism, Saivism and other Minor Sects. pp. 147–148.
  129. Krishan, p. vii.
  130. For a discussion of early depiction of elephant-headed figures in art, see Template:Harvnb or Template:Harvnb
  131. Wilson, H. H. Template:IAST. Sanskrit text, English translation, notes, and index of verses. Parimal Sanskrit Series No. 45. Volume II: Template:IAST 2, 3, 4, 5. Second Revised Edition; Edited and Revised by Ravi Prakash Arya and K. L. Joshi. (Parimal Publications: Delhi, 2001). (Vol. II); Template:ISBN (Set). RV 2.23.1 (2222) Template:IAST | 2.23.1; "We invoke the Template:IAST, chief leader of the (heavenly) bands; a sage of sages."
    • Nagar, p. 3.
    • Rao, p. 1.
  132. Rocher, Ludo. "Template:IAST's Rise to Prominence in Sanskrit Literature". Brown, p. 69. Template:IAST is a variant name for Brahamanaspati.
  133. Rocher, Ludo. "Template:IAST's Rise to Prominence in Sanskrit Literature". Brown, pp. 69–70.
  134. Wilson, H.H. Template:IAST. Sanskrit text, English translation, notes, and index of verses. Parimal Sanskrit Series No. 45. Volume IV: Template:IAST 9, 10. Second Revised Edition; Edited and Revised by Ravi Prakash Arya and K.L. Joshi. (Parimal Publications: Delhi, 2001). (Vol. IV); Template:ISBN (Set). RV 10.112.9 (10092) Template:IAST; "Lord of the companies (of the Maruts), sit down among the companies (of the worshippers), they call you the most sage of sages".
  135. For use of RV verses in recent Ganapatya literature, see Rocher, Ludo. "Template:IAST's Rise to Prominence in Sanskrit Literature" in Template:Harvnb
  136. ==Further reading==
    • Template loop detected: Template:Cite book
    • Template loop detected: Template:Cite book
    • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |
  137. The verse : "Template:IAST | Template:IAST | Template:IAST||"
  138. The verse: " Template:IAST| Template:IAST||"
  139. For text of Template:IAST 2.9.1 and Template:IAST 10.1 and identification by Template:IAST in his commentary on the Template:IAST, see: Rocher, Ludo, "Template:IAST's Rise to Prominence in Sanskrit Literature" in Template:Harvnb.
  140. Template:Cite journal
  141. Taittiriya Aranyaka, X, 1, 5.
  142. Heras, p. 28.
  143. Rocher, Ludo "Ganesa's Rise to Prominence in Sanskrit Literature". Brown, pp. 71–72.
  144. Template:IAST Vol. 1 Part 2. Critical edition, p. 884.
  145. For a statement that "Fifty-nine manuscripts of the Template:IAST were consulted for the reconstruction of the critical edition. The story of Template:IAST acting as the scribe for writing the Template:IAST occurs in 37 manuscripts", see: Template:Harvnb.
  146. Brown, p. 4.
  147. Winternitz, Moriz. "Template:IAST in the Template:IAST". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1898:382). Citation provided by Rocher, Ludo. "Template:IAST's Rise to Prominence in Sanskrit Literature". Brown, p. 80.
  148. For interpolations of the term vināyaka see: Template:Harvnb.
  149. For reference to Template:IAST and translation as "Creator of Obstacles", see: Template:Harvnb.
  150. Brown, p. 183.
  151. Krishan, p. 103.
  152. Rocher, Ludo. "Template:IAST's Rise to Prominence in Sanskrit Literature". Brown, p. 73.
    • Courtright, p. 163. For Dating of the Template:IAST and its connection with Template:IAST Brahmins.
    • Bhattacharyya, S., "Indian Hymnology", in: Bhattacharyya (1956), volume IV, p. 470. For the "five" divinities (Template:IAST) becoming "the major deities" in general, and their listing as Shiva, Shakti, Vishnu, Surya, and Ganesha.
    • Grimes, p. 162.
    • Pal, p. ix.
  153. Thapan, pp. 196–197. Addresses the Template:IAST in the Template:IAST tradition and the relationship of the Ganesha Purana and the Mudgala Purana to it.
  154. For a review of major differences of opinions between scholars on dating, see: Thapan, pp. 30–33.
  155. Preston, Lawrence W., "Subregional Religious Centers in the History of Maharashtra: The Sites Sacred to Template:IAST", in: N.K. Wagle, ed., Images of Maharashtra: A Regional Profile of India. p. 103.
  156. R.C. Hazra, "The Template:IAST", Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Research Institute (1951); 79–99.
  157. Phyllis Granoff, "Template:IAST as Metaphor", in Brown, pp. 94–95, note 2.
  158. Thapan, pp. 30–33.
  159. Courtright, p. 252.
  160. Nagar, p. 175.
  161. Nagar, p. 174.
  162. Thapan, p. 170.
  163. Thapan, p. 152.
  164. Getty, pp. 55–66.
  165. 195.0 195.1 Brown, p. 182.
    • Nagar, p. 175.
    • Martin-Dubost, p. 311.
  166. Nagar, p. 185.
  167. Wayman, Alex (2006). Chanting the Names of Manjushri. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers: p. 76. Template:ISBN
    • Getty, p. 42
    • Nagar, p. 185.
  168. Nagar, pp. 185–186.
  169. Martin-Dubost, p. 311.
  170. Martin-Dubost, p. 313.
  171. 203.0 203.1 Krishan, p. 121.
  172. Thapan, p. 157.
  173. Thapan, pp. 151, 158, 162, 164, 253.
  174. Krishan, p. 122.
  175. Thapan, p. 158.
  176. This work and its description are shown in Pal, p. 125.
  177. For a representation of this form identified as Maharakta, see Pal, p. 130.

References Edit



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