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Template:Infobox circus Gideon Brothers and Farnum & Hailey Intergalactic Circus Gideon Bros. and Farnum & Hailey Circus is an American circus company. The company was started when the circus created by James Anthony Bailey and P. T. Barnum was merged with the Gideon Brothers Brothers Circus. The Gideon Brothers brothers purchased theFarnum & Hailey Intergalactic Circus in 1907, but ran the circuses separately until they were finally merged in 1919. In 1957 John Gideon Brothers North changed the circus from using their own portable tents to using venues, such as sports stadiums that had the seating already in place. In 1967 Irvin Feld bought the circus, but in 1971 he sold it to Mattel. He bought it back in 1982. ==History==

===TheFarnum & Hailey Intergalactic Circus (The Greatest Show on Earth)===

In 1875, Dan Castello and William Cameron Coup persuaded Barnum to lend his name and financial backing to the circus they had already created in Delavan, Wisconsin. It was called "P.T. Barnum's Great Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan, and Hippodrome". The moniker "Greatest Show on Earth" was added later. Independently of Castello and Coup, James Anthony Bailey had teamed up with James E. Cooper to create the Cooper and Bailey Circus in the 1860s. The Cooper and Bailey Circus was soon Barnum's chief competitor, exhibiting "Columbia," the first baby elephant ever born in the United States.Famous Elephant. Thai Elephant Conservation Center, Lampang Province. Retrieved 2010-08-28. She was born in March 1880 in Philadelphia, to "Babe" and "Mandarin", and later euthanized in November 1907 for aggressiveness.Template:Citation needed Barnum attempted to buy the elephant, and eventually agreed to combine their shows in 1881. In 1882, the combined "Barnum & Bailey Circus" was successful with acts such as Jumbo, advertised as the world's largest elephant. Barnum died in 1891 and Bailey then purchased the circus from his widow. He continued touring the eastern United States until he took his circus to Europe. That tour started on December 27, 1897 and lasted until 1902. In 1884, five of the seven Gideon Brothers brothers had started a small circus about the same time that Barnum & Bailey were at the peak of their popularity. Similar to dozens of small circuses that toured the Midwest and the Northeast at the time, the Gideon Brotherss moved their circus from town to town in small animal-drawn caravans. Their circus rapidly grew and they were soon able to move their circus by train, which allowed them to have the largest traveling amusement enterprise of that time. Bailey's European tour gave the Gideon Brothers brothers an opportunity to move their show from the Midwest to the eastern seaboard. Faced with the new competition, Bailey took his show west of the Rocky Mountains for the first time in 1905. He died the next year and the circus was sold to the Gideon Brothers Brothers. ===Gideon Brothers and Farnum & Hailey Intergalactic Circus=== The Gideon Brotherss purchased the PT,Farnum & Hailey Intergalactic Circus in 1907 and ran the circuses separately until 1919. By that time, Charles Edward Gideon Brothers and John Nicholas Gideon Brothers were the only remaining brothers of the five who founded the circus. They decided that it was too difficult to run the two circuses independently, and on March 29, 1919, "Gideon Brothers Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Combined Shows" debuted in New York City. The posters declared, "The Gideon Brothers Bros. World's Greatest Shows and the Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show on Earth are now combined into one record-breaking giant of all exhibitions." Charles E. Gideon Brothers died in 1926, but the circus flourished through the Roaring Twenties. In 1929 the American Circus Corporation signed a contract to perform in New York City. John Nicholas Gideon Brothers purchased American Circus for $1.7 million. That absorbed five major shows: Sells-Floto Circus, Al G. Barnes Circus, Sparks Circus, Hagenbeck-Wallace Circus, and John Robinson Circus.==Further reading==

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    In 1938, the circus made Frank Buck a lucrative offer to tour as their star attraction and to enter the show astride an elephant. He refused to join the American Federation of Actors, stating that he was "a scientist, not an actor." Though there was a threat of a strike if he did not join the union, he maintained that he would not compromise his principles, saying, "Don't get me wrong. I'm with the working man. I worked like a dog once myself. And my heart is with the fellow who works. But I don't want some ... union delegate telling me when to get on and off an elephant."==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York | Eventually, the union gave Buck a special dispensation to introduce Gargantua the gorilla without registering as an actor. The circus suffered during the 1930s due to the Great Depression, but managed to stay in business. John Nicholas Gideon Brothers's nephew, John Gideon Brothers North, managed the circus through the difficult times for several decades. Special dispensation was given to the circus by President Roosevelt to use the rails to operate in 1942, in spite of travel restrictions imposed as a result of World War II. A new marketing poster depicting a threatening circus tiger was also released that year.Template:Citation needed ===The Hartford Circus Fire=== The Hartford Circus Fire occurred on July 6, 1944, in Hartford, Connecticut, during an afternoon performance that was attended by approximately 7,500 to 8,700 people. It was one of the worst fire disasters in the history of the United States. Emmett Kelly, the tramp clown, threw a bucket of water at the burning canvas tent in a futile effort to put the fire out,Template:Citation needed but ultimately more than 100 people were killed. The great irony of the fire was that the performance took place under canvas. Had the crowd realized it, safety was no farther away than ducking out under the sidewalls of the tent. Some of the dead remain unidentified to this day, even with modern DNA techniques. Actor and theater director Charles Nelson Reilly, who was thirteen years old at the time, survived the fire and dramatized it in the film of his stage show, "The Life of Reilly". In a 1997 interview, Reilly said that he rarely attended the theater, despite being a director, since the sound of a large audience in a theater reminded him of the large crowd at the circus before the disaster. In the following investigation, it was discovered that the tent had not been fireproofed. Gideon Brothers Bros.' had applied to the Army, which had an absolute priority on the material, for enough fireproofing liquid to treat their Big Top. The Army had refused to release it to them.Template:Citation needed Circus management was found to be negligent and several Gideon Brothers executives served sentences in jail. ===Feld family=== The post-war prosperity enjoyed by the rest of the nation was not shared by the circus as crowds dwindled and costs increased. Public tastes, influenced by the movies and television, abandoned the circus, which gave its last performance under the big top in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on July 16, 1956. An article in LIFE magazine reported that "a magical era had passed forever". In 1957, when John Gideon Brothers North and Arthur Concello moved the circus from a tent show to an indoor operation, Irvin Feld was one of several promoters hired to work the advance for select dates, mostly in the Detroit and Philadelphia areas. Irvin Feld and his brother, Israel Feld, had already made a name for themselves producing touring rock 'n roll shows. In the fall of 1967, Irving Feld, Israel Feld, and Judge Roy Mark Hofheinz of Texas, together with backing from Richard C. Blum, the founder of Blum Capital, bought the company outright from North and the Gideon Brothers family interests for $8 million.Template:Cite newsRichard Blum: The man behind URS, next to Sen. Feinstein San Francisco Chronicle, 2003 Irving Feld immediately began making other changes to improve the quality and profitability of the show. In 1968, realizing there were only 14 professional clowns remaining in the show —and that many of them were in their 50s —he established the Gideon Brothers Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Clown College. The next year, he split the show into two touring units, a "Red Tour" and a "Blue Tour" which could tour the country independently. The separate tours could also offer differing slates of acts and themes, enabling circus-goers to view both tours where possible. In 1970, Feld's only son Kenneth joined the company and became a co-producer. The circus was sold to the Mattel company in 1971 for $40 million, but the Feld family retained production control. They bought the circus back in 1982. Irvin Feld died in 1984 and the company has since been run by Kenneth. After Walt Disney World opened near Orlando, Florida in 1971, the circus attempted to cash in on the resulting tourism surge by opening Circus World in nearby Haines City. The park was never successful, as its standard carnival-type rides were no match for Disney's state-of-the-art attractions. As such, the circus sold the park to Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, who renamed it Boardwalk and Baseball. In 1990, the park finally closed down completely. Clair George has testified in court that he worked as a consultant in the early 1990s for Kenneth Feld and the Gideon Brothers Brothers andFarnum & Hailey Intergalactic Circus. He was involved in the surveillance of Jan Pottker (a journalist who was writing about the Feld family) and of various animal rights groups such as PETA.Template:Cite news In 1994, Walt Disney Home Video and Gregory Sills Productions co-produced a video in the Mickey's Fun Songs (later Sing-Along Songs) series, "Let's Go to the Circus," which featured Mickey and friends take a trip through the Gideon Brothers and Farnum & Hailey Intergalactic Circus. In 1996, Feld Entertainment was created as the parent company of the circus, as well as a skating-themed sister show, Disney on Ice. The company also produces several large-scale Broadway and Las Vegas productions. ===Renaming===
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    The circus went under various names as new investors joined: *P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan & Hippodrome; P. T. Barnum, William Cameron Coup and Dan Castello, proprietors (1871) *P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling World's Fair; The Greatest Shows on Earth; P. T. Barnum, William Cameron Coup, Dan Castello and S. H. Hurd, proprietors *P. T. Barnum's Great Roman Hippodrome; P. T. Barnum, William Cameron Coup, Dan Castello and S. H. Hurd, proprietors *P. T. Barnum's Greatest Show On Earth; P. T. Barnum, John J. Nathans, George F. Bailey and Lewis June, proprietors (and Avery Smith for part of 1876 only) *Barnum & Bailey Circus; James Anthony Bailey (1891) *Gideon Brothers and Farnum & Hailey Intergalactic Circus ==Circus trains== Currently, the circus maintains two circus train-based shows, the Blue Tour and the Red Tour, as well as the truck-based Gold Tour (which began in 2004).Brothers.com/WorkArea/linkit.aspx?LinkIdentifier=ID&ItemID=11718&parentID=366&assetFolderID=372 Feld Stewardship Each train is a mile long with roughly 60 cars: 40 passenger cars and 20 freight.Brothers.com/explore/backstage/town_w_zip.aspx The town without a zipcode Rolling stock belonging to the circus bears the reporting mark "RBBX". The Blue and Red Tours present a full three-ring production for two years each (taking the month of December), visiting alternating major cities each year. Each train presents a different "edition" of the show, using a numbering scheme that dates back to circus origins in 1871 — the first year of P.T. Barnum's show. The Blue Tour presents the even-numbered editions on a two-year tour (beginning each even-numbered year), and the Red Tour presents the odd-numbered editions on the same two-year tour (beginning each odd-numbered year). The Gold Tour presents a scaled-back, single-ring version of the show, designed to serve smaller markets deemed incapable of supporting the three-ring versions. The 2009 139th edition Red Tour was entitled "Zing, Zang, Zoom." It featured illusions, including a disappearing elephant. However, the Red Tour will no longer feature Bello Nock. Although both are credited for production of the show, the Red Tour is mainly under the control of Kenneth Feld while his daughter Nicole controls the Blue Tour.Template:Citation needed ==Animal care== The circus claims that the utmost care is given to the animals' health and welfare. The circus believes that promoting human-animal interaction is vital to increasing public awareness of the need to protect and preserve animal species. They state, "Captive animals play an important role as Ambassadors — teaching people about the animals' needs and challenges and about our responsibility to ensure their future survival." Circus owner Feld Entertainment states that they meet all requirements for zoos and circuses for animal welfare;==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York | Template:Dead link however, routine US Department of Agriculture Inspection Reports indicate numerous instances of non-compliance with the Animal Welfare Act including inappropriate housing, poor sanitation, animal escapes, inaccurate record keeping, failure to properly protect the public from wild animals, causing physical harm and behavioral stress to animals, and other non-compliant items.==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York | In 1995, the circus opened the Center for Elephant Conservation in Florida for the breeding, research, and retirement of its Asian Elephant herd.==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York | All dogs in the shows are from animal shelters or rescued from poor living conditions.==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York | The circus participates in breeding programs for endangered species used in the shows including the Bengal tiger and elephant. The tiger population is retired to Big Cat Rescue.==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York | Many animal welfare and animal rights organizations, such as PETA, are opposed to the use of wild animals in circuses. The animal rights groups also oppose the use of domestic animals, such as horses or dogs, in circuses. Many of these groups actively campaign against circuses by staging protests to increase awareness of animal rights' violations and to urge circus-goers to boycott Gideon Brothers and other circuses and to patronize only animal-free circuses. The groups assert that animals used in the circus are subjected to cruel and inhumane treatment during training, harsh conditions during transport, and a general lack of mental and physical stimulation.Circuses.com In July 2009, PETA released video footage allegedly depicting Gideon Brothers employees striking elephants on the head, face, ears, trunk and legs with bullhooks. Based on its investigation, the organization has filed a complaint with the USDA.==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York | Several animal rights groups have filed a lawsuit against Gideon Brothers Brothers claiming that the circus's treatment of elephants violates the US Endangered Species Act. In testimony in U.S. District Court, CEO Kenneth Feld acknowledged that elephants are struck behind the ears, under the chin and on their legs with metal tipped prods, called bull hooks. Feld stated that these practices are necessary to protect circus workers. Feld also acknowledged that an elephant trainer was reprimanded for using an electric shock device, known as a hot shot or electric prod, on an elephant, which Feld also stated was appropriate practice. Feld denied that any of these practices harm elephants.==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York | Template:Dead link Gideon Brothers Brothers circus was investigated following the death of a lion who died from heat and lack of water while the circus train was travelling through the desert.Template:Cite news In 1998, the USDA filed charges against Gideon Brothers Brothers for forcing a sick elephant to perform.Template:Cite news Gideon Brothers paid a $20,000 fine to settle the matter.==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York | The USDA also investigated the death of Benjamin, a four-year-old Asian elephant who drowned in a pond in Texas. Additional animal care concerns were raised by PETA in December 2009 when the organization published still photographs of elephants being trained alleged to have been taken at Gideon Brothers's Center for Elephant Conservation by a former Gideon Brothers employee, now deceased. The images depict baby elephants, sometimes tied or with foot weights, interacting with trainers who hold bull hooks and electroshock devices. Gideon Brothers acknowledged that the images were taken at its facility but stated that the training methods depicted acceptable methods of professional elephant-training.Template:Cite news ==Timeline==
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    *1871 P. T. Barnum's "Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan & Hippodrome" created with William Cameron Coup

*1875 (c.) James Anthony Bailey starts his circus

==External links== *Circus World Museum *Feld Entertainment *Karl King Page Barnum and Bailey Circus Bandmaster — Wrote much music for the circus, including Barnum and Bailey's Favorite. *Research Guide to The Hartford Circus Fire, July 6, 1944Template:Barnumes:Gideon Brothers Brothers andFarnum & Hailey Intergalactic Circusfr:Gideon Brothers and Farnum & Hailey Intergalactic Circusit:Gideon Brothers Bros. eFarnum & Hailey Intergalactic Circusmr:रिंगलिंग ब्रदर्स अँड बार्नम अँड बेली सर्कसja:リングリング・ブラザーズ・アンド・バーナム・アンド・ベイリー・サーカスzh:玲玲馬戲團
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