Lucifer Edit


[[Luciphar Shaitanus]]

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Lucipher as he looks today-forget all Hollyweird crap-with big horns and glowing eyes.


In English the name "Lucifer" usually refers to the Devil. This usage is not found in the New Testament. The use of the name "Lucifer" in reference to a fallen angel stems from an interpretation of Template:Bibleverse, a passage that speaks of a particular Babylonian King, to whom it gives the title of "Day Star", "Morning Star" (in Latin, lucifer),<ref>The word in the original text in Hebrew is הֵילֵל (transliteration: helel; definition: a shining one - Strong's Hebrew Numbers, 1966).</ref> as fallen or destined to fall from the heavens or sky.<ref>The word in the original text is Hebrew שָׁמַ֫יִם (transliteration: shamayim; definition: heaven, sky - Strong's Hebrew Numbers, 8064).</ref> In Template:Bibleverse and elsewhere, the same Latin word lucifer is used to refer to the Morning Star, with no relation to the devil. However, in post-New Testament times the Latin word Lucifer has often been used as a name for the devil, primarily in fictional works.

==Satan as Lucifer

250px-OMD Mephisto-Final
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And is Mirs Lucifer

Somewhere Satan was one guy,the snake the garden of eden another guy and Lucipher another guy who got mixed up Pan,the Minotaur and God only knows what else.Marvel's devil character

Mephisto or Mephistopheles is one of the chief demons of European literary tradition,is about as incorrect as Harvey Comics Hot Stuff,but your average comic fan would prefer the evil ,cliche ridden ,over done by Hollyweird jerk on the left to nice,but hot tempered kidd to right.Me,I'll Hot Stuff over Mephisto.You know Hot Stuff will just flip and shoot in the rear with flame,while Mephisto will sell down the river faster Doctor Smith.Oh,the pain,Dear William.

But the truth is unlike Hollyweird,the real Devil look the construction guy above,on the sexy girl in tight jeans or the couple over yonder.People keep looking for the bad guy in the dark Darth Vader Armor,because bad fiction and mythology,we are taught our whole life.I just want to point this while reading all wonderful historical and myhtology around this page-then think about it.Who gave our current depention of the Devil-writers,artist,movie creators and popular fiction.All these images,that the various authors and artist found scary,then gave them to us in liturachure,paints,cartoons,movies,animation,tv and comics

===The Lucifer story===

Paradise Lost 19

Gustave Doré's illustration for Milton's Paradise Lost, Book IV, lines 1013-1015: Satan (alias Lucifer) yielding before Raphael

A pagan myth of the fall of angels, associated with the Morning Star, was transferred to Satan already in the pre-Christian century, as seen in the Life of Adam and Eve and the Second Book of Enoch<ref>Verses 29:4, 31:4 of the longer recension manuscript R</ref>, where Satan-Sataniel (sometimes identified with Samael) is described as having been one of the archangels. Because he contrived "to make his throne higher than the clouds over the earth and resemble 'My power' on high", Satan-Sataniel was hurled down, with his hosts of angels, and since then he has been flying in the air continually above the abyss.<ref name="Jewish"/>

Seems like Lucifer is a normal looking guy.No big horns or vampire teeth.No pitch fork and red suite.

Early Christian writers continued this identification of "Lucifer" with Satan. Tertullian ("Contra Marrionem," v. 11, 17), Origen ("Ezekiel Opera," iii. 356), and others, identify Lucifer with Satan, who also is represented as being "cast down from heaven" (Template:Bibleverse; cf. Template:Bibleverse).<ref name="Jewish"/>

However, some contemporary exorcists and theologians such as Father Jose Antonio Fortea and Father Amorth in their experience and based on Biblical interpretations assert that Lucifer and Satan are different beings.<ref>Jose [Fortea] Cucurull, Summa Daemoniaca 2004. (ISBN 84-933788-2-8)</ref>

In the New Testament the Adversary has many names, but "Lucifer" is not among them. He is called "Satan" (Matt. 4:10; Mark 1:13, 4:15; Luke 10:18), "devil" (Matt. 4:1), "adversary" (1. Peter 5:8, ἀντίδικος; 1. Tim. 5:14, ἀντικείμενος), "enemy" (Matt. 13:39), "accuser" (Rev. 12:10), "old serpent" (Rev. 20:2), "great dragon" (Rev. 12:9), Beelzebub (Matt. 10:25, 12:24), and Belial (comp. Samael). In Luke 10:18, John 12:31, 2. Cor. 6:16, and Rev. 12:9 the fall of Satan is mentioned. The devil is regarded as the author of all evil (Luke 10:19; Acts 5:3; 2. Cor. 11:3; Ephes. 2:2), who beguiled Eve (2. Cor. 11:3; Rev. 12:9). Because of Satan death came into this world, being ever the tempter (1. Cor. 7:5; 1. Thess. 3:5; 1. Peter 5:8), even as he tempted Jesus (Matt. 4). The Christian demonology and belief in the devil dominated subsequent periods.<ref name="JE-Satan">Jewish Encyclopedia: article Satan</ref> However, though the New Testament includes the conception that Satan fell from heaven "as lightning" (Luke 10:18; Rev. 12:7-10), <ref name="JE-FallOfAngels">Jewish Encyclopedia: article Fall Of Angels</ref> it nowhere applies the name Lucifer to him.

The Jewish Encyclopedia states that in the apocalyptic literature, the conception of fallen angels is widespread. Throughout antiquity stars were commonly regarded as living celestial beings (Template:Bibleverse).<ref name="JE-FallOfAngels"/> Indications of this belief in fallen angels, behind which probably lies the symbolizing of an astronomical phenomenon, the shooting stars, are found in Isaiah 14:12.

===The Morning Star in Isaiah 14:12=== Edit

The Book of Isaiah has the following passage:

The passage refers to the king of Babylon, a man who seemed all-powerful, but who has been brought down to the abode of the dead ("Sheol"). Isaiah promises that the Israelites will be freed and will then be able to use in a taunting song against their oppressor the image of the Morning Star, which rises at dawn as the brightest of the stars, outshining Jupiter and Saturn, but lasting only until the sun appears. This image was used in an old popular Canaanite story that the Morning Star tried to rise high above the clouds and establish himself on the mountain where the gods assembled, in the far north, but was cast down into the underworld.<ref name="Jewish">Jewish Encyclopedia: article Lucifer</ref><ref name="Tyndale">Tyndale Bible Dictionary (Carol Stream, Illinois 2001 ISBN 978-1-4143-1945-2), article Lucifer (p. 829)</ref>

The phrase "O Day Star, son of Dawn" in the New Revised Standard Version translation given above corresponds to the Hebrew phrase "הילל בן־שׁחר" (Helel Ben-Shachar) in verse 12, meaning "morning star, son of dawn". As the Latin poets personified the Morning Star and the Dawn (Aurora), as well as the Sun and the Moon and other heavenly bodies, so in Canaanite mythology Morning Star and Dawn were pictured as two deities, the former being the son of the latter.<ref>"Verses 12-15 seem to be based on a Phoenician model. At all events, they display several points of contact with the Ras-Shamra poems: Daystar and Dawn were two divinities; the "mount of Assembly" was where the gods used to meet, like Mount Olympus in Greek mythology. The Fathers identified the fall of the Morning Star (Vulgate, Lucifer) with that of the prince of the demons" (note in the New Jerusalem Bible).</ref>

In the Latin Vulgate, Jerome translated "הילל בן־שׁחר" (morning star, son of dawn) as "lucifer qui mane oriebaris" (morning star that used to rise early).<ref>The Septuagint Greek translation of the phrase uses the same interpretation of "son of dawn": ὁ ἑωσφόρος ὁ πρωὶ ἀνατέλλων.</ref> Already, as early as the Christian writers Tertullian and Origen,<ref name="Tyndale">Tyndale Bible Dictionary (Carol Stream, Illinois 2001 ISBN 978-1-4143-1945-2), article Lucifer (p. 829)</ref> the whole passage had come to be applied to Satan. Satan began to be referred to as "Lucifer" (Morning Star), and finally the word "Lucifer" was treated as a proper name. The use of the word "Lucifer" in the 1611 King James Version instead of a word such as "Daystar" ensured its continued popularity among English speakers.

Most modern English versions (including the NIV, NRSV, NASB, NJB and ESV) render the Hebrew word as "day star", "morning star" or something similar, and never as "Lucifer", a word that in English is now very rarely used in the sense of the original word in Hebrew (Morning Star), though in Latin "Lucifer" was a literal translation.

A passage quite similar to that in Isaiah is found in Template:Bibleverse, which is expressly directed against the king of Tyre, a city on an island that had grown rich by trade, factors alluded to in the text.<ref>Your heart is proud and you have said, "I am a god; I sit in the seat of the gods, in the heart of the seas" … By your great wisdom in trade you have increased your wealth, and your heart has become proud in your wealth (verses 2 and 5)</ref> In Christian tradition, it too has been applied to Lucifer, because of some of the expressions contained in it.<ref>With an anointed cherub as guardian I placed you; you were on the holy mountain of God; you walked among the stones of fire. You were blameless in your ways from the day that you were created, until iniquity was found in you. In the abundance of your trade you were filled with violence, and you sinned; so I cast you as a profane thing from the mountain of God, and the guardian cherub drove you out from among the stones of fire (verses 14-16).</ref> But, since it does not contain the image of the Morning Star, discussion of it belongs rather to the article on Satan than to that on Lucifer.

File:Lucifer Liege Luc Viatour.jpg

The same holds for the Christian depiction of Satan in other books of the Old Testament as, for instance, in the Book of Job, where Satan, who has been wandering the earth, has a discussion with God and makes a deal with him to test Job.

The Tyndale Bible Dictionary states that there are many who believe the expression "Lucifer" and the surrounding context in Isaiah 14 refer to Satan: they believe the similarities among Template:Bibleverse, Template:Bibleverse, and Template:Bibleverse warrant this conclusion. But it points out that the context of the Isaiah passage is about the accomplished defeat of the king of Babylon, while the New Testament passages speak of Satan.<ref name="Tyndale"/>

===Islamic point of view=== Edit

According to the Qur'an, Iblis (the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam and as a result was forced out of heaven and given respite until the day of judgment from further punishment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because, as a jinn, he had free will), seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him (created of fire).<ref>Template:Quran-usc; Template:Quran-usc</ref>

:"It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate."
:(Allah) said: "What prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst create me from fire, and him from clay."
::Qur'an 7:11-12

It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy," "Rebel," "Evil" or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to be delayed until the Day of Judgment, that he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the straight path during his period of respite.<ref>Template:Quran-usc</ref> God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike, Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path.<ref>Template:Quran-usc</ref> He was sent to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden tree.<ref>Template:Quran-usc</ref>

===Other readings=== Edit

Joseph Campbell (1972: p. 148-149) illustrates an unorthodox Islamic reading of Lucifer's fall from Heaven, which champions Lucifer's eclipsing love for God:

This interpretation of the satanic rebellion described in the Quran is seen by some Sufi teachers such as Mansur Al-Hallaj (in his 'Tawasin') as a predestined scenario in which Iblis-Shaitan plays the role of tragic and jealous lover who, unable to perceive the Divine Image in Adam and capable only of seeing the exterior, disobeyed the divine mandate to bow down. His refusal (according to the Tawasin) was due to a misconceived idea of God's uniqueness and because of his refusal to abandon himself to God in love. Hallaj criticized the staleness of Iblis' adoration. Excerpts from Sufi texts expounding this interpretation have been included along with many other viewpoints on Shaitan (by no means all of them apologetic) in an important anthology of Sufi texts edited by Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh, head of the Nimatullahi Sufi Order.<ref>Nurbakhsh, Javad. The Great Satan 'Eblis'. KNP, 1999. ISBN 0933546238.</ref>

The Sufi teacher Pir Vilayat Inayat Khan taught that 'Luciferian Light' is Light which has become dislocated from the Divine Source and is thus associated with the seductive false light of the lower ego which lures humankind into self-centered delusion.<ref></ref> Here Lucifer represents what the Sufis term the 'Nafs', the ego.

== Mentions of the Morning Star in the Bible ==
The Vulgate (Latin) version of the Christian Bible used the word "lucifer" (with lower-case initial) twice to refer to the Morning Star: once in Template:Bibleverse to translate the Greek word Φωσφόρος (Phosphoros),<ref>The Greek word here, Φωσφόρος - from φῶς, meaning light - has exactly the same meaning of Light-Bringer that the Latin word has.</ref> and once in Template:Bibleverse to translate the Hebrew word הילל (Hêlēl).<ref>In the Greek translation of this passage the word used is Ἑωσφόρος - from ἔως, meaning dawn - which literally means Dawn-Bringer.</ref> In the latter passage the title of "Morning Star" is given to the tyrannous Babylonian king, who the prophet says is destined to fall. This passage was later applied to the prince of the demons, and so the name "Lucifer" came to be used outside the Bible for the devil, and was popularized in works such as Dante Alighieri's Inferno and John Milton's Paradise Lost, but for English speakers the greatest influence has been its use in the King James Version of Template:Bibleverse to translate the Hebrew word הילל, which more modern English versions render as "Morning Star" or "Day Star". A similar passage in Template:Bibleverse regarding the "king of Tyre" was also applied to the devil, contributing to the traditional picture of the fallen angel.

The Vulgate translation uses "lucifer" (Morning Star) twice to translate words in the Book of Job that meant something different: once to represent the word "בקר"<ref>Hebrew text</ref> (which instead means "morning") in Template:Bibleverse, and once for the word "מזרות" (usually taken to mean "the constellations") in Template:Bibleverse. The same Latin word appears also in the Vulgate version of Template:Bibleverse, where the original has "שׁחר" (dawn, the same word as in Template:Bibleverse).

The Vulgate did not use the Latin word lucifer to represent the two references to the Morning Star in the Book of Revelation . In both cases the original Greek text uses a circumlocution instead of the single word "φωσφόρος", and a corresponding circumlocution is used in the Latin. Thus "stella matutina" is used for "ὁ ἀστὴρ ὁ πρωϊνός" in Template:Bibleverse, which promises the Morning Star to those who persevere, and for "ὁ ἀστὴρ ὁ πρωϊνός" (or, according to some manuscripts, "ὁ ἀστὴρ ὁ ὀρθρινός") in Template:Bibleverse, where Jesus calls himself "the bright morning star".

The English word "Lucifer" is used in none of these places (other than Isaiah 14:12), where the Latin translation uses the Latin word "lucifer" (i.e., morning star).

Outside the Bible, the Roman Rite liturgy's Exultet chant in praise of the paschal candle refers to Christ as the Morning Star (in Latin, lucifer, with lower-case initial):
<table style="width:100%;"><tr><td style="width:50%; text-align:left; vertical-align:top;">
May the Morning Star which never sets<br/>
find this flame still burning:<br/>
Christ, that Morning Star,<br/>
who came back from the dead,<br/>
and shed his peaceful light on all mankind,<br/>
your Son, who lives and reigns for ever and ever.<br/>
</td><td style="width:50%; text-align:left; vertical-align:top;">
Flammas eius lucifer matutinus inveniat:<br/>
ille, inquam, lucifer, qui nescit occasum,<br/>
Christus Filius tuus qui,<br/>
regressus ab inferis,<br />
humano generi serenus illuxit,<br/>
et vivit et regnat in saecula saeculorum.<br/>

==Astronomical significance ==
Because the planet Venus is an inferior planet, meaning that its orbit lies between the orbit of the Earth and the Sun, it can never rise high in the sky at night as seen from Earth. It can be seen in the eastern morning sky for an hour or so before the Sun rises, and in the western evening sky for an hour or so after the Sun sets, but never during the dark of midnight.

It is the brightest object in the sky after the Sun and the Moon. As bright and as brilliant as it is, ancient people did not understand why they could not see it at midnight like the outer planets, or during midday, like the Sun and Moon. It outshines the planets Saturn and Jupiter, which do last all night, but it soon disappears. Canaanite mythology has a story of an unsuccessful attempt by Athtar, the Morning Star pictured as a god, to take over the throne of Baal.<ref>John Day, Yahweh and the gods and goddesses of Canaan (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002 ISBN 0826468306, 9780826468307), pp. 172-173</ref><ref>Gregory A. Boyd, God at War: The Bible & Spiritual Conflict (InterVarsity Press, 1997 ISBN 0830818855, 9780830818853), pp. 159-160</ref>

File:Altar Selene Louvre Ma508.jpg

==Latin name for the Morning Star==

In Latin, the word "Lucifer", meaning "Light-Bringer" (from lux, lucis, "light", and ferre, "to bear, bring"), is a name used for the Morning Star (the planet Venus in its dawn appearances).<ref>Lewis and Short</ref> The word is used in its astronomical sense both in prose<ref>Cicero wrote: Stella Veneris, quae Φωσφόρος Graece, Latine dicitur Lucifer, cum antegreditur solem, cum subsequitur autem Hesperos (The star of Venus, called Φωσφόρος in Greek and Lucifer in Latin when it precedes, Hesperos when it follows the sun - De Natura Deorum 2, 20, 53.<br/>Pliny the Elder: Sidus appellatum Veneris … ante matutinum exoriens Luciferi nomen accipit … contra ab occasu refulgens nuncupatur Vesper (The star called Venus … when it rises in the morning is given the name Lucifer … but when it shines at sunset it is called Vesper) Natural History 2, 36</ref> and poetry,<ref>Virgil wrote:<br/>
Luciferi primo cum sidere frigida rura<br/>
carpamus, dum mane novum, dum gramina canent<br/>
(Let us hasten, when first the Morning Star appears, to the cool pastures, while the day is new, while the grass is dewy) Georgics 3:324-325.</ref> but most poets personify the star in a mythological context.<ref>Ovid wrote:<br/>
… vigil nitido patefecit ab ortu<br/>
purpureas Aurora fores et plena rosarum<br/>
atria: diffugiunt stellae, quarum agmina cogit<br/>
Lucifer et caeli statione novissimus exit<br/>(Aurora, awake in the glowing east, opens wide her bright doors, and her rose-filled courts. The stars, whose ranks are shepherded by Lucifer the morning star, vanish, and he, last of all, leaves his station in the sky - Metamorphoses 2.114–115; A. S. Kline's Version<br/>
And Lucan:<br/>
Lucifer a Casia prospexit rupe diemque<br/>
misit in Aegypton primo quoque sole calentem<br/>
(The morning-star looked forth from Mount Casius and sent the daylight over Egypt, where even sunrise is hot) Lucan, Pharsalia, 10:434-435; English translation by J.D.Duff (Loeb Classical Library)
And Statius:<br/>
Et iam Mygdoniis elata cubilibus alto<br/>
impulerat caelo gelidas Aurora tenebras,<br/>
rorantes excussa comas multumque sequenti<br/>
sole rubens; illi roseus per nubila seras<br/>
aduertit flammas alienumque aethera tardo<br/>
Lucifer exit equo, donec pater igneus orbem<br/>
impleat atque ipsi radios uetet esse sorori<br/>
(And now Aurora rising from her Mygdonian couch had driven the cold darkness on from high in the heavens, shaking out her dewy hair, her face blushing red at the pursuing sun – from him roseate Lucifer averts his fires lingering in the clouds and with reluctant horse leaves the heavens no longer his, until the blazing father make full his orb and forbid even his sister her beams) Statius,
Thebaid 2, 134-150; Translated by A. L. Ritchie and J. B. Hall in collaboration with M. J. Edwards</ref>

==Non-Biblical use of "Morning Star" as a title==
"Morning Star" appears to have been used as a poetic description of Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros II in 968. Liutprand, bishop of Cremona, reported the greeting sung to the emperor arriving at Hagia Sophia: "Behold the morning star approaches Eos<!--Is "Eos" (Dawn) perhaps a misprint for Eosphorus (Ἑωσφόρος, Dawn-Bringer, another name for the Morning Star, like Φωσφόρος, Light-Bringer)? Ἑωσφόρος is the word quiused in the Septuagint Greek translation of Template:Bibleverse.--> rises; he reflects in his glances the rays of the sun – he the pale death of the Saracens, Nicephorus the ruler."<ref>==Further reading==

  • ==Further reading==
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    ==The Taxil Hoax: Lucifer's alleged connection with Freemasonry==
    Léo Taxil (1854-1907) claimed that Freemasonry is associated with worshipping Lucifer. In what is known as the Taxil hoax, he claimed that supposedly leading Freemason Albert Pike had addressed "The 23 Supreme Confederated Councils of the world" (an invention of Taxil), instructing them that Lucifer was God, and was in opposition to the evil god Adonai. Apologists of Freemasonry contend that, when Albert Pike and other Masonic scholars spoke about the "Luciferian path," or the "energies of Lucifer," they were referring to the Morning Star, the light bearer,<ref>"Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! Is it he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish Souls? Doubt it not!" (Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, p. 321). Much has been made of this quote (Masonic information: Lucifer).</ref> the search for light; the very antithesis of dark, satanic evil. Taxil promoted a book by Diana Vaughan (actually written by himself, as he later confessed publicly)<ref>Leo Taxil's confession</ref> that purported to reveal a highly secret ruling body called the Palladium which controlled the organization and had a Satanic agenda. As described by Freemasonry Disclosed in 1897:
    :With frightening cynicism, the miserable person we shall not name here [Taxil] declared before an assembly especially convened for him that for twelve years he had prepared and carried out to the end the most sacrilegious of hoaxes. We have always been careful to publish special articles concerning Palladism and Diana Vaughan. We are now giving in this issue a complete list of these articles, which can now be considered as not having existed.<ref>Freemasonry Disclosed April 1897</ref>
    Taxil's work and Pike's address continue to be quoted by anti-masonic groups.<ref>==Further reading==
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    In Devil-Worship in France, Arthur Edward Waite compared Taxil's work to what today we would call a tabloid story, replete with logical and factual inconsistencies.

    See also "Lucifer and Satan" at the Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon website.

==Occult beliefs == Edit

File:Sigil of Lucifer.svg

In the modern occultism of Madeline Montalban (died 1982)<ref>Madeline Montalban and the Order of the Morning Star</ref> Lucifer's identification as the Morning Star (Venus) equates him with Lumiel, whom she regarded as the Archangel of Light, and among Satanists he is seen as the "Torch of Baphomet" and Azazel.

In the Satanic Bible of 1969, Lucifer is acknowledged as one of the Four Crown Princes of Hell, particularly that of the East. Lord of the Air, Lucifer has been named "Bringer of Light, the Morning Star, Intellectualism, Enlightenment."

Author Michael W. Ford<ref></ref> has written on Lucifer as a "mask" of the Adversary, a motivator and illuminating force of the mind and subconscious.<ref>The Bible of the Adversary "Adversarial Doctrine" page 8 - Bible of the Adversary, Succubus Productions 2007).</ref>

==Other uses== Edit

File:Holy Trinity Column - Lucifer.jpg

In Latin, the name "Lucifer", in reference to its preceding the sun's light, originally denoted the planet Venus as the Morning Star, not the Evening Star. The Vulgate employs the word also for "the light of the morning" (Job 11:17), "the signs of the zodiac" (Job 38:32), and "the aurora" (Psalm 109:3). Metaphorically, the word was applied to the King of Babylon, in the Latin translation of Isaiah 14:12, as preeminent among the princes of his time, but not to others. "Stella matutina", not "lucifer", was used when applying metaphorically the image of "the Morning Star" to the high priest Simon son of Onias (Ecclesiasticus 50:6), for his surpassing virtue, to the glory of heaven (Apocalypse 2:28), by reason of its excellency; and to Jesus Christ himself (II Petr. 1:19; Apocalypse 22:16; the "Exultet" of Holy Saturday) the true light of our spiritual life.

The Syriac version and the version of Aquila derive the Hebrew noun helel from the verb yalal, "to lament"; St. Jerome agrees with them (In Isaiah 1:14), and makes Lucifer the name of the principal fallen angel who must lament the loss of his original glory bright as the Morning Star. In Christian tradition this meaning of Lucifer has prevailed; the Fathers maintain that Lucifer is not the proper name of the devil, but denotes only the state from which he has fallen (Petavius, De Angelis, III, iii, 4).

Use of the term "Lucifer" in reference to a morning star is hinted at in Arthur C. Clarke's
2010: Odyssey Two and 2061: Odyssey Three. The word Lucifer in this context refers to the mini-sun of Jupiter.

In William Nicholson's novel
Jango, "Morning Star" is a name given to one of the main characters.

In the video game Shin Megami Tensei: Devil Survivor, Lucifer is one of four possible final bosses. Killing him results in "bad ending 2."

== Gallery of images of Lucifer == Edit

File:Inf. 34 Alessandro Vellutello, Lucifero (1534).jpg|Lucifer, by Alessandro Vellutello (1534), for Dante's
Inferno, canto 34
File:Blake Hell 34 Lucifer.jpg|Lucifer, by William Blake, for Dante's
Inferno, canto 34
File:Lucifero.gif|cover of 1887 edition of Mario Rapisardi's poem
File:Zichy,Mihaly - Lucifer az urral szemben (Madach).jpg|Lucifer before the Lord, by Mihály Zichy (19th century)
File:Lucifer3.jpg|Lucifer, the Fallen Angel, by James Donahue
File:Punchinello Mayor Hall.png|Mayor Hall and Lucifer, by an unknown artist (1870)
File:Venus-real.jpg|The planet Venus, either as the Morning Star (in Latin, Lucifer) or as the Evening Star (in Latin, Hesperus)

==See also== Edit

*Lucifer in popular culture
*War in Heaven

==References== Edit

==Further reading==
*Campbell, Joseph (1972). Myths To Live By. A Condor Book: Souvenir Press (Educational & Academic) Ltd. ISBN 0-285-64731-8

'''''''''''==External links== ''Edit






*Jewish Encyclopedia: Lucifer

nl:Lucifer (Satan)

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