FANDOM


Magnus 5000-a huge artificial intelligent computer-built by the hidden cities original builders

☀Colossus, becoming sentient after being activated and deciding to assume control of the world and all human affairs for the good of mankind.[1]Dr. Charles A. Forbin (Eric Braeden) is the chief designer of a secret government project that has built "Colossus", an advanced supercomputerto control the United States and Allied nuclear weapons systems. Being encased within a mountain, it is impervious to attack, powered by its own nuclear reactor. When Colossus is activated, the President of the United States (Gordon Pinsent) announces its existence, proudly proclaiming it a perfect defense system.

Shortly after, it sends a cryptic message: "WARN: THERE IS ANOTHER SYSTEM". The president learns that the Soviets will be activating their own defense computer known as "Guardian". Colossus asks that communications be established, and the president allows a communications link to determine the Soviet computer's capabilities.

Once the link is established, Colossus begins sending messages with simple, and then more complex, mathematics. When Guardian responds, the two machines begin communicating in a binary language that scientists cannot interpret.

This alarms the president and the Soviet General Secretary, who both agree to sever the link. Both machines insist it be restored. When this is refused, Colossus launches a nuclear missile at a USSR oil field and Guardian launches one at Henderson Air Force Base. Demands that the attacks stop are ignored, and the link is hurriedly reconnected. Colossus is able to shoot down the Soviet missile, but the U. S. missile destroys the oil field and a nearby town. Press cover stories are released, and both computers continue without limitation.

Computer terminal at operations facility

A meeting between Forbin and his Soviet counterpart, Dr. Kuprin, is arranged. When Colossus learns of it, the computers order Forbin be returned, and Soviet agents are ordered to kill Dr. Kuprin. Forbin is then to be placed under 24-hour surveillance by Colossus.

Before this is done, Forbin meets with his team. He proposes that Dr. Cleo Markham (Susan Clark) pretend to be his mistress in order to keep him informed of all clandestine actions against Colossus.

Concluding that the joined computers are impervious to attack, Forbin suggests disarming the missiles to prevent nuclear blackmail. U. S. commanders develop a plan to replace the launch triggers with fakes, but it will take three years to complete the task.

With a voice synthesizer added, Guardian/Colossus announces it is now one entity. It instructs both governments to retarget their nuclear arsenals at those countries not yet under its control. Dr. Forbin sees this as an opportunity to covertly disarm the missiles much faster while carrying out this latest order. The process begins in Colorado and proves successful.

Working by direct personal contact only, the scientists attempt to overload the supercomputer by feeding in test cycles. The attempt fails, and those responsible are immediately executed on order from Guardian/Colossus. Guardian/Colossus then transmits plans for an even larger computer complex to be built into the island of Crete.

Guardian/Colossus then arranges a worldwide broadcast. The supercomputer proclaims itself "the voice of World Control" and declares its mission is to prevent war, as it was designed to do so. Mankind is given the choice between the"peace of plenty" or one of "unburied dead". It also states that it has detected the attempt to disarm the missiles. It detonates two in their silos "so that you will learn by experience that I do not tolerate interference".

Guardian/Colossus informs Forbin that "freedom is just an illusion" and that "In time you will come to regard me not only with respect and awe, but with love". Forbin angrily replies, "Never!"

Cast[edit] Edit

  • Eric Braeden as Dr. Charles Forbin
  • Susan Clark as Dr. Cleo Markham
  • Gordon Pinsent as The President
  • William Schallert as CIA Director Grauber
  • Leonid Rostoff as Russian Chairman
  • Georg Stanford Brown as Dr. John F. Fisher
  • Willard Sage as Dr. Blake
  • Alex Rodine as Dr. Kuprin
  • Martin E. Brooks as Dr. Jefferson J. Johnson
  • Marion Ross as Angela Fields
  • Dolph Sweet as Missile Commander
  • Byron Morrow as Secretary of State
  • Paul Frees as the voice of Colossus/Guardian (uncredited)
  • Sid McCoy as Secretary of Defense
  • James Hong as Dr. Chin

Production[edit] Edit

Film historian Tom Weaver noted "Early on, they had either Charlton Heston or Gregory Peck in mind, but then they changed their mind about that. Stanley Chase insisted on a relative unknown. That's when Eric Braeden came into the picture."[2] When he was cast, Braeden was still using his birth name, Hans Gudegast. Universal Pictures executive Lew Wasserman told him that no one would be allowed to star in an American film if they had a German name. Thus,Colossus: The Forbin Project became the first production in which he started using "Eric Braeden" as his stage name.[3]Braeden's casting enabled Peck to star in I Walk the Line and for Heston to star in Beneath the Planet of the Apes.

The exterior scenes of the Colossus control center were filmed at the Lawrence Hall of Science museum at the University of California, Berkeley.[Note 1]

In some countries (such as the UK), the film was originally titled simply as The Forbin Project, though the UK DVD release is titled Colossus: The Forbin Project. This release does not utilize the quotation marks around the words "The Forbin" as per the U.S. release.[Note 2]

{{Infobox character

|name = HAL 9000

|series = [[Space Odyssey]]

|image = HAL9000.svg

|alt = HAL's camera eye

|caption = Artist's rendering of HAL's famous camera eye

|first = ''[[2001: A Space Odyssey (novel)|2001: A Space Odyssey]]'' (novel)<br>''[[2001: A Space Odyssey (film)|2001: A Space Odyssey]]'' (film)

|last = ''[[3001: The Final Odyssey]]'' (novel)<br>''[[2010 (film)|2010]]'' (film)

|creator = [[Arthur C. Clarke]]<br>[[Stanley Kubrick]]

|voice = [[Douglas Rain]]

|nickname = HAL

|species = [[Artificial intelligence]]<br>[[Computer]]

|gender = N/A ([[male]] vocals)

|relatives = [[#SAL 9000|SAL 9000]]

}}

'''HAL 9000''' is a [[fictional character]] in [[Arthur C. Clarke]]'s ''[[Space Odyssey]]'' series.  The primary [[antagonist]] of ''[[2001: A Space Odyssey (film)|2001: A Space Odyssey]]'', HAL ([[Heuristic algorithm|'''H'''euristically]] programmed '''AL'''gorithmic computer) is a [[sentient]] [[computer]] (or [[artificial general intelligence]]) that controls the systems of the ''[[Discovery&nbsp;One]]'' spacecraft and interacts with the ship's [[astronaut]] crew. HAL's exterior physical form is not depicted, though it is visually represented as a red television camera eye located on equipment panels throughout the ship, and its interior in the scene where his advanced memory modules are disconnected. HAL 9000 is voiced by [[Douglas Rain]] in the two film adaptations of the ''Space Odyssey'' series. HAL speaks in a soft, calm voice and a conversational manner, in contrast to the crewmen, [[David Bowman (Space Odyssey)|David Bowman]] and Frank Poole, who speak tersely and with little emotional inflection.


In the context of the series, HAL became operational on 12 January 1999 at the HAL Laboratories in [[Urbana, Illinois]] as production number 3; in the film ''2001'', the activation year was 1992 and 1991 in earlier screenplays.<ref name="Meaning">{{cite web| url = http://www.palantir.net/2001/meanings/essay11.html | title = Meanings: The Search for Meaning in 2001| accessdate = 2007-05-10| author = George D. DeMet}}</ref> In addition to maintaining the ''Discovery One'' spacecraft systems during the interplanetary mission to [[Jupiter]] (or [[Saturn]] in the original novel, published shortly after the release of the film), HAL is capable of [[speech synthesis|speech]], [[speech recognition]], [[facial recognition system|facial recognition]], [[natural language processing]], [[lip reading]], [[art criticism|art appreciation]], [[Affective computing|interpreting and reproducing emotional behaviours]], [[automated reasoning]], and [[computer chess|playing chess]].


==Appearances==


===''2001: A Space Odyssey''===

HAL became operational in [[Urbana, Illinois]], at the HAL Plant (the [[University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign|University of Illinois]]'  [[Coordinated Science Laboratory]], where the [[ILLIAC]] computers were built).  The film says this occurred in 1992, while the book gives 1997 as HAL's birth year.[1]</nowiki> 

In ''[[2001: A Space Odyssey]]'', HAL is initially considered a dependable member of the crew, maintaining ship functions and engaging genially with its human crew-mates on an equal footing. As a recreational activity, [[Frank Poole]] plays against HAL in [[Poole versus HAL 9000|a game of chess]]. In the film the artificial intelligence is shown to triumph easily. 

However, as time progresses, HAL begins to malfunction in subtle ways and, as a result, the decision is made to shut down HAL in order to prevent more serious malfunctions.  The sequence of events and manner in which HAL is shut down differs between the novel and film versions of the story. In the aforementioned game of chess HAL makes minor and undetected mistakes in his analysis, a possible foreshadowing to HAL's malfunctioning.


In the film, astronauts [[David Bowman (Space Odyssey)|David Bowman]] and [[Frank Poole]] consider disconnecting HAL's [[cognitive]] circuits when he appears to be mistaken in reporting the presence of a fault in the spacecraft's communications antenna.  They attempt to conceal what they are saying, but are unaware that HAL can [[lip reading|read their lips]]. Faced with the prospect of disconnection, HAL decides to kill the astronauts in order to protect and continue its programmed directives, and to conceal its malfunction from Earth. HAL uses one of the Discovery's EVA pods to kill Poole while he is repairing the ship.  When Bowman uses another pod to attempt to rescue Poole, HAL locks him out of the ship, then disconnects the life support systems of the other hibernating crew members.  Dave circumvents HAL's control, entering the ship by manually opening an emergency airlock with his service pod's clamps, detaching the pod door via its explosive bolts.  Bowman jumps across empty space, reenters Discovery, and quickly repressurizes the airlock.


The novel explains that HAL is unable to resolve a conflict between his general mission to relay information accurately, and orders specific to the mission requiring that he withhold from Bowman and Poole the true purpose of the mission. (This withholding is considered essential after the findings of a psychological experiment, "Project Barsoom", where humans were made to believe that there had been alien contact. In every person tested, a deep-seated [[xenophobia]] was revealed, which was unknowingly replicated in HAL's constructed personality. Mission Control did not want the crew of ''Discovery'' to have their thinking compromised by the knowledge that alien contact was already real.)  With the crew dead, HAL reasons, he would not need to lie to them. He fabricates the failure of the AE-35 antenna-steering unit so that their deaths would appear accidental.


In the novel, the orders to disconnect HAL come from Dave and Frank's superiors on Earth.  After Frank is killed while attempting to repair the communications antenna—his oxygen hose gets disconnected and he is pushed away into deep space—Dave begins to revive his hibernating crewmates, but is foiled when HAL vents the ship's atmosphere into the vacuum of space, killing the awakening crew members and almost killing Dave.  Dave is only narrowly saved when he finds his way to an emergency chamber which has its own oxygen supply and a spare space suit inside.


In both versions, Bowman then proceeds to shut down the machine.  In the film, HAL's central core is depicted as a crawlspace full of brightly lit computer modules mounted in arrays from which they can be inserted or removed. Bowman shuts down HAL by removing modules from service one by one; as he does so, HAL's consciousness degrades. HAL regurgitates material that was programmed into him early in his memory, including announcing the date he became operational as 12 January 1992 (in the novel, 1997). When HAL's logic is completely gone, he begins singing the song "[[Daisy Bell]]" (in actuality, the first song sung by a computer).<ref name=IBMsDaisy1961>{{Cite book |date=June 23, 2010 |chapter=News from the Library of Congress |title= National Recording Registry Adds 25 |series=(No.14) "Daisy Bell (Bicycle Built for Two)," Max Mathews (1961) |publisher=[[Library of Congress]] |url=http://www.loc.gov/today/pr/2010/10-116.html |accessdate=14 January 2011 |postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web |date=December 9, 2008 |title=First computer to sing - Daisy Bell |url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=41U78QP8nBk |work=[[YouTube]] clip |accessdate=14 January 2010 |postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref> HAL's final act of any significance is to prematurely play a prerecorded message from Mission Control which reveals the true reasons for the mission to Jupiter.


===''2010: Odyssey Two''===

In the sequel ''[[2010: Odyssey Two]]'', HAL is restarted by his creator, Dr. Chandra, who arrives on the Soviet spaceship ''[[Leonov (fictional spacecraft)|Leonov]]''.


{{Anchor|SAL 9000}}Prior to leaving Earth, Dr. Chandra has also had a discussion with HAL's twin, the SAL 9000. Like HAL, SAL was created by Dr. Chandra. Whereas HAL was characterised as being "male", SAL is characterised as being "female" (voiced by [[Candice Bergen]]) and is represented by a blue camera eye instead of a red one.


Dr. Chandra discovers that HAL's crisis was caused by a programming contradiction: he was constructed for "the accurate processing of information without distortion or concealment", yet his orders, directly from Dr. Heywood Floyd at the National Council on Astronautics, required him to keep the discovery of the [[Monolith (Space Odyssey)|Monolith]] TMA-1 a secret for reasons of [[national security]]. This contradiction created a "[[Hofstadter-Moebius loop]]", reducing HAL to [[paranoia]]. Therefore, HAL made the decision to kill the crew, thereby allowing him to obey both his hardwired instructions to report data truthfully and in full, and his orders to keep the monolith a secret. In essence: if the crew were dead, he would no longer have to keep the information secret.


The alien intelligence initiates a terraforming scheme, placing the ''Leonov'', and everybody in it, in danger. Its human crew devises an escape plan, which unfortunately requires leaving the ''Discovery'' and HAL behind, to be destroyed. Dr. Chandra explains the danger, and HAL willingly sacrifices himself so that the astronauts may escape safely. In the moment of his destruction, the monolith-makers transform HAL into a non-corporeal being, so that David Bowman's avatar may have a companion.


The details in the book and [[2010 (film)|the film]] are nominally the same, with a few exceptions. First, in contradiction to the book (and events described in both book and film versions of ''2001: A Space Odyssey''), Heywood Floyd is absolved of responsibility for HAL's condition; it is asserted that the decision to program HAL with information concerning TMA-1 came directly from the White House.  In the film, HAL functions normally after being reactivated, while in the book it is revealed that his mind was damaged during the shutdown, forcing him to begin communication through screen text. Also, in the film the ''Leonov'' crew lies to HAL about the dangers that he faced (suspecting that if he knew he would be destroyed he would not initiate the engine-burn necessary to get the ''Leonov'' back home), whereas in the novel he is told at the outset. However, in both cases the suspense comes from the question of what HAL will do when he knows that he may be destroyed by his actions.


The basic reboot sequence initiated by Dr. Chandra in the movie ''2010'' is voiced from 

HAL as, "HELLO_DOCTOR_NAME_CONTINUE_

YESTERDAY_TOMORROW" (which in the novel ''2010'' is a longer sequence).


Prior to ''Leonov''{{'}}s return to Earth, Curnow tells Floyd that Dr. Chandra has begun designing HAL 10000.


In ''[[2061: Odyssey Three]]'' it is revealed that Chandra died on the journey back to Earth.


===''2061: Odyssey Three'' and ''3001: The Final Odyssey''===

In ''[[2061: Odyssey Three]]'', [[Heywood R. Floyd|Heywood Floyd]] is surprised to encounter HAL, now stored alongside Dave Bowman in the Europa monolith.


''[[3001: The Final Odyssey]]'' Frank Poole was introduced to the merged form of Dave Bowman and HAL, the two merging into one entity called "Halman" after Bowman rescued HAL from the dying ''[[Discovery One]]'' spaceship towards the end of ''[[2010: Odyssey Two]]''.


==Concept and creation==

Clarke noted that the film ''2001'' was criticized for not having any characters, except for HAL and that a great deal of the establishing story on Earth was cut from the film (and even from Clarke's novel).<ref>Clarke, Arthur C, ''The Lost Worlds of 2001'', pp. 77-79, Signet, 1972</ref>  Early drafts of Clarke's story called the computer [[Socrates]] (a preferred name to Autonomous Mobile Explorer&ndash;5), with another draft giving the computer a female personality called [[Athena]].<ref name="Clarke, Arthur C pp. 78"/> This name was later used in Clarke and [[Stephen Baxter]]'s ''[[A Time Odyssey]]'' novel series.


The earliest draft depicted Socrates as a roughly humanoid robot, and is introduced as overseeing Project [[Morpheus (mythology)|Morpheus]], which studied prolonged hibernation in preparation for long term space flight.  As a demonstration to ''Senator'' Floyd, Socrates' designer, Dr. Bruno Forster, asks Socrates to turn off the oxygen to hibernating subjects Kaminski and Whitehead, which Socrates refuses, citing [[Isaac Asimov|Asimov's]] [[Laws of Robotics|First Law of Robotics]].<ref>Clarke, Arthur C, ''The Lost Worlds of 2001'', chapter 12, Signet, 1972</ref>


In a later version, in which Bowman and Whitehead are the non-hibernating crew of Discovery, Whitehead dies outside the spacecraft after his pod collides with the main antenna, tearing it free. This triggers the need for Bowman to revive Poole, but the revival does not go according to plan, and after briefly awakening, Poole dies. The computer, now named [[Athena]], announces "All systems of Poole now No–Go. It will be necessary to replace him with a spare unit."<ref>Clarke, Arthur C, ''The Lost Worlds of 2001'', pp. 149-150, Signet, 1972</ref> After this, Bowman decides to go out in a pod and retrieve the antenna, which is moving away from the ship. Athena refuses to allow him to leave the ship, citing "Directive 15" which prevents it from being left unattended, forcing him to make program modifications during which time the antenna drifts further.<ref>Clarke, Arthur C, ''The Lost Worlds of 2001'', pp. 159-160, Signet, 1972</ref>


During rehearsals Kubrick asked [[Stefanie Powers]] to supply the voice of HAL 9000 while searching for a suitably androgynous voice so the actors had something to react to. On the set, British actor [[Nigel Davenport]] played HAL.<ref>{{Cite book|author=Powers, Stefanie|title=One from the Hart|pages=66–69|publisher=Simon and Schuster|date=2010|ISBN=1-4391-7210-2}}</ref><ref>''Stanley Kubrick: A Biography'' by Vincent LoBrutto p. 278</ref> When it came to dubbing HAL in post-production, Kubrick had originally cast [[Martin Balsam]], but as he felt Balsam "just sounded a little bit too colloquially American", he was replaced with [[Douglas Rain]], who "had the kind of bland [[mid-Atlantic accent]] we felt was right for the part."<ref>{{cite book |title=The film director as superstar |last=Gelmis |first=Joseph |page=306 |date=1970 |publisher=[[Doubleday (publisher)|Doubleday]] |oclc=52379 }}</ref> Rain was only handed HAL's lines instead of the full script, and recorded them across a day and a half.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/5.01/ffhal_pr.html | work=Wired | first=Simson | last=Garfinkel| title=Happy Birthday, Hal }}</ref>


HAL's [[point of view shot]]s were created with a [[Cinerama]] 160-degree Fairchild-Curtis [[wide-angle lens]]. This lens is about {{convert|8|in|cm}} in diameter, while HAL's [[Theatrical property|prop]] eye lens is about {{convert|3|in|cm}} in diameter. [[Stanley Kubrick]] chose to use the large Fairchild-Curtis lens to shoot the HAL 9000 POV shots because he needed a wide-angle [[fisheye lens]] that would fit onto his shooting camera, and this was the only lens at the time that would work. The HAL 9000 faceplate, without lens, was discovered in a junk shop in Paddington, London, in the early 1970s by Chris Randall.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sciencefictionbuzz.com/the-original-hal-9000-film-prop-for-sale-by-auction-london-25th-november.html|title=The original HAL 9000 film prop for sale by auction London 25th November|publisher=}}</ref> Research{{who|date=January 2015}} revealed that the original lens was a Nikon Nikkor 8mm F8.{{citation needed|date=January 2015}} This was found along with the key to HAL's Brain Room. Both items were purchased for ten shillings (£0.50) The collection was sold at a Christies auction in 2010 for £17,500.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.christies.com/about/press-center/releases/pressrelease.aspx?pressreleaseid=4423|title=RESULTS: Pop Culture-Film and Entertainment Memorabilia - Press Release - Christie's|author=Christie’s|publisher=}}</ref>


===Origin of name===

Although it is often conjectured that the name HAL was based on a [[Caesar cipher|one-letter shift]] from the name [[IBM]], this has been denied by both Clarke and ''2001'' director [[Stanley Kubrick]].<ref name="Meaning"/> In ''[[2010: Odyssey Two]]'', Clarke speaks through the character of [[Dr. Chandra]] (he originally spoke through Dr. Floyd until Chandra was awakened), who characterized this idea as: "[u]tter nonsense! [...] I thought that by now every intelligent person knew that H-A-L is derived from ''H''euristic ''AL''gorithmic".<ref>{{cite web| url = http://web.archive.org/web/20011216193706/http://2001halslegacy.com/interviews/clarke.html | title = Dawn of HAL: History of Artificial Intelligence - Dr. Arthur C. Clarke Interview| accessdate = 2007-05-10

| author = Dr. David G. Stork| work = 2001: HAL's Legacy Web site| publisher = PBS}}</ref><ref>{{cite web| url = http://www.visual-memory.co.uk/faq/index.html#slot7| title = What do the letters HAL stand for and is there a connection with IBM?| accessdate = 2007-05-12| work = The Kubrick FAQ}}</ref>


Clarke more directly addressed this issue in his book ''The Lost Worlds of 2001'':<ref name="Clarke, Arthur C pp. 78">Clarke, Arthur C, ''The Lost Worlds of 2001'', pp. 78, Signet, 1972</ref>

<blockquote>As is clearly stated in the novel (Chapter 16), ''HAL'' stands for ''H''euristically programmed ''AL''gorithmic computer. However, about once a week some character spots the fact that HAL is one letter ahead of IBM, and promptly assumes that Stanley and I were taking a crack at the estimable institution ... As it happened, IBM had given us a good deal of help, so we were quite embarrassed by this, and would have changed the name had we spotted the coincidence.</blockquote>

Also, IBM is explicitly mentioned in the film ''2001'', as are many other real companies. IBM is given fictional credit as being the manufacturer of the [[Orion III spaceplane#Orion III spaceplane|Pan Am Clipper]]'s computer, and the IBM logo can be seen in the center of the cockpit's instrument panel. In addition, the IBM logo is shown on the lower arm keypad on Poole's space suit in the scene where he space walks to replace the antenna unit, and may possibly be shown reflected on Bowman's face when he is inside the pod on his way to retrieve the body of Poole (there is speculation as to whether or not the reflection is that of the letters "IBM" or the letters "MGM", the film studio).


===Influences===

The scene in which HAL's consciousness degrades was inspired by Clarke's memory of a [[speech synthesis]] demonstration by physicist [[John Larry Kelly, Jr.]], who used an [[IBM 704]] computer to synthesize speech. Kelly's voice recorder synthesizer ''[[vocoder]]'' recreated the song "[[Daisy Bell]]", with musical accompaniment from [[Max Mathews]].<ref name="bell labs hal">{{cite web|title=Background: Bell Labs Text-to-Speech Synthesis: Then and Now Bell Labs and 'Talking Machines'|url=http://www.bell-labs.com/news/1997/march/5/2.html|publisher=Bell Labs|accessdate=January 8, 2015|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140401034716/http://www.bell-labs.com/news/1997/march/5/2.html|archivedate=April 1, 2014}}</ref>


HAL has inspired some designs of intelligent computers in some science fiction films, like "Mother" (MU-TH-R 182 model 2.1 terabyte AI  Mainframe) in ''[[Alien (film)|Alien]]'', VIKI in ''[[I, Robot (film)|I, Robot]]'', and AUTO in ''[[Wall-E]]''.<ref>Bahn, Christopher, Donna Bowman, Scott Gordon, Jason Heller, Genevieve Koski, Sean O'Neal, Tasha Robinson, and Kyle Ryan. ""I'm Afraid I Can't Do That": 17 Dangerous Cinematic Computers." A.V. Club. N.p., 20 Aug 2007. Web. 7 Jan 2012. <http://www.avclub.com/articles/im-afraid-i-cant-do-that-17-dangerous-cinematic-co,2020/></ref>


HAL's capabilities, like all the technology in ''2001'', were based on the speculation of respected scientists. [[Marvin Minsky]], director of the [[MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory]] (CSAIL) and one of the most influential researchers in the field, was an adviser on the film set.<ref>See [http://mitpress.mit.edu/e-books/Hal/chap2/two3.html Scientist on the Set: An Interview with Marvin Minsky]</ref> In the mid-1960s, many [[computer scientist]]s in the field of artificial intelligence were optimistic that machines with HAL's capabilities would exist within a few decades. For example, AI pioneer [[Herbert A. Simon]] at [[Carnegie Mellon University]], had predicted in 1965 that "[[Technological singularity|machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do]]",<ref>Quoted in {{Crevier 1993}}, p. 109</ref> the overarching premise being that the issue was [[Moore's law|one of computational speed (which was predicted to increase)]] rather than principle.


==Cultural impact==

HAL is listed as the 13th-greatest film villain in the [[AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains]].<ref>{{cite web |title=AFI's 100 Greatest Heroes & Villains |url=http://www.afi.com/100Years/handv.aspx |publisher=American Film Institute |accessdate=January 8, 2015 |date=2003}}</ref>


Villainous computers inspired by HAL have appeared in ''[[The Simpsons]]'' and ''[[Recess (TV series)|Recess]]''.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.knowyourmobile.com/android-apps/simpsons-tapped-out/21771/simpsons-top-technology-moments|title=The Simpsons top 7 technology spoofs|first=James|last=Peckham|date=2014-01-27|accessdate=2015-08-16}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://the-artifice.com/recess-top-10-episodes-disney/3/|title=Top 10 episodes of the nostalgic Disney children's show 'Recess'|first=Anna|last=Williams|publisher=The Artifice|date=2013-06-30|accessdate=2015-08-16}}</ref> HAL also appeared in [[Lego Dimensions]].


==See also==

* [[List of fictional computers]]

** [[Colossus (novel)]]

** [[Skynet (Terminator)]]

** [[GLaDOS|GLaDOS (Portal & Portal2)]]

* [[ILLIAC]] ([[University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign]])

* [[National Center for Supercomputing Applications]] (University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)

* [[Poole versus HAL 9000]] (details of chess game played by Frank Poole and HAL 9000)

* [[Jipi and the Paranoid Chip]]


==References==


{{Reflist|2}}


==External links==

{{Sister project links|wikt=no|commons=Category:HAL 9000|v=no|n=no|q=2001: A Space Odyssey (film)#HAL 9000|s=no|b=no|voy=no}}

* [http://www.thehal9000.com The HAL 9000 Simulator] TheHAL9000.com - Including screensavers, wallpapers and movie inspired flash interfaces.

* [http://www.imdb.com/Quotes?2001%3A+A+Space+Odyssey+(1968) Text excerpts from HAL 9000 in ''2001: A Space Odyssey'']

* [http://www.dailywav.com/numbers.php Audio soundbites from ''2001: A Space Odyssey'']

* [http://mitpress.mit.edu/e-books/Hal/contents.html HAL's Legacy], on-line ebook (mostly full-text) of the printed version edited by David G. Stork, MIT Press, 1997, ISBN 0-262-69211-2, a collection of essays on HAL

* [http://www.2001-halslegacy.com/interviews/clarke.html HAL's Legacy], ''An Interview with Arthur C. Clarke''.

* [http://www.visual-memory.co.uk/amk/doc/0095.html The case for HAL's sanity by Clay Waldrop]

* [http://www.boraski.com/obelisk/cyberfest/s_virgshow.html ''2001'' fills the theater] at HAL 9000's "birthday" in 1997 at the [[University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign]]

* [http://www.halproject.com The Hal Project] featuring the Hal 9000 screensaver.

* [http://www.talklikehal.com Talk like HAL] Campaign to promote talking like HAL on his birthday of January 12, includes audio sound files


{{Space Odyssey}}


[[Category:Characters in British novels of the 20th century]]

[[Category:Characters in written science fiction]]

[[Category:Fictional artificial intelligences]]

[[Category:Fictional characters from Illinois]]

[[Category:Fictional characters introduced in 1968]]

[[Category:Fictional computers]]

[[Category:Fictional mass murderers]]

[[Category:Fictional operating systems]]

[[Category:Literary villains]]

[[Category:Science fiction film characters]]

[[Category:Space Odyssey series]]

acking the ability to move, the BRT supercomputer was, strictly speaking, not a droid, but rather a self-aware artificial intelligence module.

HistoryEdit

BRTs were quite possibly the most advanced supercomputers ever constructed. They were designed to operate on a planetary scale, capable of being hooked into millions of networks and mainframes. Its consciousness was generated by a supercomputer that takes the space of an average-sized room, and was typically more powerful than the entire combined networking system of most Outer Rim Territories worlds.
File:Albert.png
Initial research into BRT's started over a thousand years BBY by the Aratech Repulsor Company, but was hindered by problems with the G0-T0 infrastructure planning system droids following the time of the Jedi Civil War and progress moved slowly over many centuries. Finally, in 200 BBY, the BRT supercomputer was released with much fanfare, having been marketed as municipal planners to many Core Worlds.

BRTs were short-lived however. Due to their flawless management of planetary systems such as traffic control, power regulation, waste disposal, and emergency management, many government employees found their jobs suddenly obsolete. This caused much anti-droid sentiment to develop on planets with BRT systems. Within several years, most BRTs had been dismantled.

During this time, the directors of the library on Obroa-skai bought several BRTs, at a significant discount, to help them sort and maintain the massive amounts of data in their archives. The branch library on the world of Fusai nicknamed their BRT unit Mistress Mnemos and she developed a very strict and ostentatious demeanor.

Prior to the Battle of Yavin, Obroa-skai cut funding for the Fusai branch library and not long after the Rebel Alliance established a presence on the world and made use of Mistress Mnemos.

AppearancesEdit


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