1. Red Circle (publisher), a line of pulp magazines published by Martin Goodman
  2. Originally known as Red Circle Comics, the company which would become better known as Timely Comics (and latterly as Marvel Comics) was founded by Martin Goodman in 1939, and debuted with the launch of Marvel Comics #1. Goodman had previously published pulp magazines (which is where the Red Circle name came from), covering the full gamut of genres of the era - western, detective, science fiction, jungle adventure and so on.
  3. In 1939 Goodman was looking for new markets to expand into - he was a publisher looking for stories. As luck would have it, he made the acquaintance of Frank Torpey, a salesman working for Funnies Incorporated, a group of creators looking for a publisher. At this point in time, the comics field in the U.S. consisted predominately of four publishing companies - Fox Features Syndicate, Centaur Publishers, All-American Comics and National Periodicals (the latter two of whom would later form D.C. Comics). Funnies, Inc. was formed from former staff of Centaur who had left their old jobs with the dreams of foudning their own publishing company.
  4. Lacking the finances to do this, they fell back to the option of creating stories for others to own and publish. Since the existing four comic companies already had creative teams producing work for them to publish, Funnies, Inc needed to find someone new. Marvel Comics, named after Goodman's science-fiction pulp title Marvel Science Stories, saw the introduction of Timely's first superheroes, The Human Torch and The Angel. Ironically, two other heroes in Marvel Comics #1 who were later to be closely associated with Timely / Marvel Comics, the Sub-Mariner and Ka-Zar, actually pre-date the company (see individual entries).
  5. Retitled Marvel Mystery Comics with issue 2, the title was a success, and was soon joined on the stands by other titles, such as Daring Mystery Comics. As Goodman's pulps line faded away due to poor sales, his Timely Comics slowly grew. None of the new titles had the success of Marvel Mystery Comics, and Timely might have ended up as just a minor footnote in comics history, had it not been for an idea of two members of the creative team, Bill Everett and Carl Burgos. They decided to have their respective heroes, the Human Torch and the Sub-Mariner, encounter one another and fight, a first for comics, and one that laid the initial building blocks for what would one day become the Marvel Universe.
  6. ==Timely==
  7. This (for the time) radical concept placed Timely firmly on the map, and saw sales soar, though the company was still small fish compared to the industries' biggies, DC, Fawcett and Quality.Through the war years Timely rose in eminence as a publisher, helped in no small part by the creation of Captain America, who became their flagship character. However, like their rivals, Timely experienced a sharp down turn in the fortunes of their superhero titles by the end of the decade, caused in large parts by the changing economics of a post-war America. They shifted their focus to other genres. Another change had happened as the decade progressed. Timely had added a "patriotic shield" to the covers of many of their titles during the war, but this practice died away as time passed. Towards the end of the forties, several of their titles had the logo "Marvel Comic" on them (the final issues of Sub-Mariner Comics, The Human Torch and Captain America [by now retitled Captain America' Weird Tales] all carried this), and the company had basically become Marvel Comics.However, rightly or wrongly, this was not the name that would be associated with them during the subsequent decade.
  8. ==Timely Comics,Atlas Comics==
  9. Martin Goodman decided to maximise profits by breaking away from his then-distributor, Kable News, and set up his own distribution company, Atlas News Company, itself a subsidiary of Atlas Publishing. Goodman grouped several companies under this overall banner, including his magazine lines, and, importantly, his comic publishing ventures.By the end of 1951 every title carried an Atlas logo, not a Marvel logo. As a result, however erroneously, the Marvel Comics of the 1950's became known as Atlas Comics. For a more in-depth history of Timely Comics online, I highly recommend Jess Nevins "Timely Comics Story".
  10. Years later, in the 1960's, Marvel began its big revival and rise to the position of most successful comic book company of them all. At that point some of the Timely characters were revived and brought into this new universe, in much the same manner that D.C. revived their headliners of that past era. D.C. eventually re-started their characters' universe, designating the old stories as having taken place on "Earth-2", in another dimension. Marvel took a different stance. The rule of thumb regarding their characters' earlier adventures became "They probably happened much as they were presented, Martin Goodman was the last person to profitably operate the firm.* There are several good reverencews on vintage paperbacks that have lots of information about Goodman's paperback lines, Lion and Lion Library.  This area is devoted to giving a preliminary view of Goodman's pulp output.
  11. ==Red Circle Publications==
  12. Red Circle Publications were such as Adventure Trails   All Star Adventure Fiction  All Star Adventure Magazine   All Star Detective Stories , American Sky Devils    The Angel Detective , Best Love Magazine , Best Sports (Magazine) , Best Western Magazine ,Complete Detective ,Complete Sports  
  13. Complete War Novels , Complete Western Book Magazine , Cowboy Action Novels , Detective Mysteries  , Detective Short Stories    Detective Star Magazine ,Dynamic Science Stories  Famous Stories  , Gunsmoke Western  , Ka-zar,Ka-zar the
  14. Great  Marvel Science Stories,Marvel Tales,Marvel StoriesMarvel Science Stories,Marvel Science Fiction , Mystery Tales   Real Confessions  , Real Love , Real Mystery Magazine , Real Sports , Six-Gun Western , Sky Devils,Sports Action
  15. Star Detective Magazine    Star Sports Magazine  ,Top-Notch Detective  Top-Notch Western   Two-Gun Western Stories   
Two-Gun Western Novel Magazine  ,,  Uncanny Stories ,  Uncanny Tales , War Stories Magazine , Western Fiction Monthly  
Western Novelettes   Western Short Stories , Wild West Stories & Complete Novel Magazine 
  2. Note: The title of a "Publication" may change, but the volume and issue numbering continues. A new "Publication" may
  3. continue from the same volume and issue numbering if the nature is changed drastically. 
  4. --Adventure-- --War / Air War--
  5. --Romance-- --Sports-- Adventure Trails American Sky Devils Best Love Magazine Best Sports (Magazine)
  6. All Star Adventure FictionAll Star Adventure Magazine Sky Devils Real Confessions Complete Sports Famous Stories War Stories Magazine Real Love Real Sports Complete War Novels Sports Action Star Sports Magazine   Service 1 Service 2 Service 3 Area
  7. but not all of them exactly as the comics of the time showed them. Unless and until a modern
  8. story confirms them, they are in limbo."
  9. Some of the old characters returned to
  10. the newstands virtually unchanged, some got only cameos or mentions
  11. to acknowledge they had been part of Marvel's history, some underwent significant
  12. revisions that established them as virtually new characters, and many have not resurfaced to
  13. this day. Please note that while most of these characters were seen to be adventurers in the same
  14. era they were published in (e.g. they fought crime and the Axis in the 1940's), some had stories
  15. set in other eras (such as the Wild West of the 1880's).Pulp Magazines and Pulp Fandom
  16. ==Red Circle Comics==
  17. Later on,Archie Publications,also came with a Red Circle line of comics,years later. Red Circle Comics was an imprint used by Archie Comics Publications, Inc. to publish non-Archie characters, especially their superheroes, in the 1970s and '80s.
  18. --Sincerely Your Editor-Yours Doc Thompson 20:28, October 17, 2009 (UTC)
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