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A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine. By the use of such places as a safe haven, by extension the term has come to be used for any place of safety. This secondary use can be categorized into human sanctuary, a safe place for humans, such as a political sanctuary; and non-human sanctuary, such as an animal or plant sanctuary.santuary in time became whole colonies for that purpose.

{{Merge|Shrine|date=July 2014}}

{{two other uses||the TV series|Sanctuary (TV series)}}

[[Image:Aias Kassandra Louvre G458.jpg|thumb|[[Ajax the Lesser|Ajax]] violates [[Cassandra]]'s  sanctuary at the [[Palladium (mythology)|Palladium]]: tondo of an Attic cup, ca. 440–430 BCE]]

A '''sanctuary''', in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a [[shrine]]. By the use of such places as a safe haven, by extension the term has come to be used for any place of safety. This secondary use can be categorized into human sanctuary, a safe place for [[human]]s, such as a political sanctuary; and non-human sanctuary, such as an animal or plant sanctuary.


== Religious sanctuary ==

Sanctuary is a word derived from the Latin sanctuarium, which is like most words ending in -arium, a container for keeping something in - in this case holy things or perhaps holy people, sancta or sancti. The meaning was extended to places of holiness or safety. A religious sanctuary may be a [[#Sanctuary as a sacred place|sacred place]] (such as a [[Church (building)|church]], [[temple]], [[synagogue]] or [[mosque]]), or a consecrated area of a church or temple around its tabernacle or [[altar]].


[[File:Sanctuary final.webmsd.webm|thumb|video depiction of sanctuary]]


Sanctuary as a sacred place Edit

In Europe, Christian churches were sometimes built on land considered to be a particularly holy spot, perhaps where a miracle or martyrdom was believed to have taken place or where a holy person was buried. Examples are [[St. Peter's Basilica]] in Rome and [[St. Albans Cathedral]] in England, which commemorate the martyrdom of [[Saint Peter]] (the first Pope) and [[Saint Alban]] (the first Christian martyr in Britain), respectively.  The place, and therefore the church built there, was considered to have been sanctified (made holy) by what happened there.  In modern times, the [[Catholic Church]] has continued this practice by placing in the altar of each church, when it is consecrated for use, a box (the ''sepulcrum'') containing relics of a saint.  The relics box is removed when the church is taken out of use as a church. In the [[Eastern Orthodox Church]], the [[antimension]] on the altar serves a similar function. It is a cloth [[icon]] of Christ's body taken down from the cross, and typically has the relics of a saint sewn into it. In addition, it is signed by the parish's [[bishop]], and represents his authorization and blessing for the [[Eucharist]] to be celebrated on that altar.


===Sanctuary as an altar===

{{Main|Chancel}}

[[Image:StMarysSanctuary.JPG|thumb|250px|left|The sanctuary at [[St. Mary's Cathedral, Sydney]]]]

In Roman Catholic, Lutheran and Anglican churches, the area around the altar is also considered holy because of the physical presence of [[God]] in the [[Eucharist]], both during the Mass and in the tabernacle on the altar the rest of the time. So that people can tell when [[Jesus]] is there (in the tabernacle), the [[sanctuary lamp]] is lit, indicating that anyone approaching the altar should [[Genuflection|genuflect]], to show respect for him.


In the [[Eastern Orthodox Church]], [[Eastern Catholic Churches]] of [[Syro-Malabar Church]], [[Byzantine rite]] and [[Coptic Orthodox Church]]es, the sanctuary is separated from the [[nave]] (where the people pray) by an [[iconostasis]], literally a wall of [[icon]]s, with three doors in it. In other [[Oriental Orthodox]] traditions, a sanctuary curtain is used. In [[Anglicanism|Anglican]] churches, the term "sanctuary" also describes only the area enclosed by the altar rail. In most [[Protestant]] churches, the term ''sanctuary'' denotes the entire worship area while the term ''[[chancel]]'' is used to refer to the area around the [[altar|altar-table]]; the term ''chancel'' is a synonym for ''sanctuary'' in the Roman Catholic Church.<ref name="Robinson2006">{{cite book|last=Robinson|first=Gary|title=Architecture|accessdate=10 May 2014|date=1 January 2006|publisher=Lotus Press|isbn=9788189093129|page=40|quote=In the historic floor plan, the words chancel and sanctuary are often synonymous.}}</ref> In many traditions, such as the Anglican Church, the [[Lutheranism|Lutheran Church]], the [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Methodism|Methodist churches]], [[altar rails]] sometimes mark the edge of the sanctuary or chancel.

[[File:Churchofstpaulandandrewinterior.jpg|thumb|200px|right|The back of the church sanctuary at [[Church of St. Paul and St. Andrew (New York City)|Church of St. Paul and St. Andrew]].]]

The area around the altar came to be called the "sanctuary", and that terminology does not apply to Christian churches alone:  [[King Solomon]]'s temple, built in about 950 BCE, had a sanctuary ("[[Holy of Holies]]") where the [[Ark of the Covenant]] was, and the term applies to the corresponding part of any house of worship. In most modern [[synagogue]]s, the main room for prayer is known as the sanctuary, to contrast it with smaller rooms dedicated to various other services and functions. (There is a raised [[bimah]] in the sanctuary, from which services are conducted, which is where the [[Ark (synagogue)|ark]] holding the [[Torah]] may reside; some synagogues, however, have a separate bimah and ark-platform.)


== Human sanctuary ==


=== Legal sanctuary ===


When referring to prosecution of crimes, sanctuary can mean one of the following:

[[Image:Church Sanctuary.jpg|thumb|250px|The Church as a [[Place of Refuge]]]]

;Church sanctuary

{{Main|Place of Refuge#Medieval England}}

:A sacred place, such as a church, in which fugitives formerly were immune to arrest (recognized by English law from the fourth to the seventeenth century)

;Political sanctuary

:Immunity to arrest afforded by a sovereign authority. The United Nations has expanded the definition of "political" to include race, nationality, religion, political opinions and membership and/or participation in any particular social group or social activities. People seeking political sanctuary typically do so by asking a sovereign authority for asylum.


====Right of asylum====

{{Main|Right of asylum}}

[[Image:St John of Beverley Sanctuary Stone.jpg|right|thumb|250px|Remains of one of four medieval stone boundary markers for the sanctuary of Saint [[John of Beverley]] in the [[East Riding of Yorkshire]]]]

Many ancient peoples recognized a religious "right of asylum", protecting criminals (or those accused of crime) from legal action and from exile to some extent. This principle was adopted by the early Christian church, and various rules developed for what the person had to do to qualify for protection and just how much protection it was.


In England, King [[Æthelberht of Kent|Æthelberht]] made the first laws regulating sanctuary in about AD 600, though [[Geoffrey of Monmouth]] in his ''[[Historia Regum Britanniae]]'' (c. 1136) says that the legendary pre-Saxon king [[Dunvallo Molmutius]] (4th/5th century BC) enacted sanctuary laws in the [[Molmutine Laws]] as recorded by [[Gildas]] (c. 500–570).<ref>[[Geoffrey of Monmouth]], ''[[Historia Regum Britanniae]]'' 2, 17</ref> By Norman times, there had come to be two kinds of sanctuary: All churches had the lower-level kind, but only the churches the king licensed had the broader version. The medieval system of asylum was finally abolished entirely in England by [[James I of England|James I]] in 1623.<ref>http://www.britannia.com/history/articles/coroner4.html</ref>


====Political asylum====

During the [[Wars of the Roses]], when the Lancastrians or Yorkists would suddenly gain the upper hand by winning a battle, some adherents of the losing side might find themselves surrounded by adherents of the winning side and unable to return to their own side, so they would rush to sanctuary at the nearest church until it was safe to leave it.  A prime example is Queen [[Elizabeth Woodville]], consort of [[Edward IV of England]].


In 1470, when the Lancastrians briefly restored [[Henry VI of England|Henry VI]] to the throne, Edward's queen was living in London with several young daughters.  She moved with them into [[Westminster Abbey|Westminster]] for sanctuary, living there in royal comfort until Edward was restored to the throne in 1471 and giving birth to their first son [[Edward V of England|Edward]] during that time.  When King Edward VI died in 1483, Elizabeth (who was highly unpopular with even the Yorkists and probably did need protection) took her five daughters and youngest son (Richard, Duke of York; Prince Edward had his own household by then) and again moved into sanctuary at Westminster.  She had all the comforts of home; she brought so much furniture and so many chests that the workmen had to knock holes in some of the walls to get everything in fast enough to suit her.{{citation needed|date=April 2007}}


During [[World War I]], all of [[Russia]]'s [[Triple Entente]] [[Allies of World War I|allies]] made a controversial decision in 1917 to deny political sanctuary to Tsar [[Nicholas II]] when he was overthrown in that year's [[February Revolution]] and forced to [[abdicate]] in March. Nicholas and his family and household were sent to [[Siberia]] that summer and in the following summer, [[Shooting of the Romanov family|Nicholas and his family were executed]] by [[Bolshevik]]s while being held under house arrest in the [[Ipatiev House]] in [[Yekaterenburg]].


=== Sanctuary movement in modern times ===

{{see also|Sanctuary movement}}


Sanctuary of refugees from [[Central America]]n civil wars was a movement in the 1980s. Part of a broader anti-war movement positioned against U.S. foreign policy in Central America, by 1987, 440 cities in the United States had been declared "[[sanctuary city|sanctuary cities]]" open to migrants from these civil wars in Central America.


These sites included university campuses and cities.  From the 1980s continuing into the 2000s, there also have been instances of churches providing "sanctuary" for short periods to migrants facing deportation in Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, Australia, the United States, and Canada, among other nations. In 2007, Iranian refugee Shahla Valadi was granted asylum in Norway after spending seven years in church sanctuary after the initial denial of asylum. Norwegian authorities will not, as a rule, enter churches to deport illegal immigrants.<ref>[http://www.news24.com/World/News/Iranian-given-asylum-in-Norway-20071213 Iranian given asylum in Norway: World: News: News24<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> From 1983 to 2003 Canada experienced 36 sanctuary incidents.<ref>See [[Randy K. Lippert]] (2005). ''Sanctuary, Sovereignty, Sacrifice: Canadian Sanctuary Incidents, Power and Law''. ISBN 0-7748-1249-4</ref> The "New Sanctuary Movement" organization estimates that at least 600,000 people in the United States have at least one family member in danger of deportation.<ref>"Elvira Arellano Arrested Outside Downtown Church: Chicago Immigration Activist Taken Into Custody Sunday Afternoon" [http://cbs2.com/local/local_story_231191810.html CBS2.com]</ref>


=== Other uses ===

When referring to a shelter from danger or hardship, sanctuary can mean one of the following:

;Shelter sanctuary

:A place offering protection and safety; a shelter, typically used by [[displaced persons]], [[refugees]], and [[homelessness|homeless people]].

{{see also|safe house|right of asylum|air-raid shelter|emergency shelter|refugee camp|homeless shelter|humanitarian aid|relief agency|debt relief|psychiatric hospital|hospice|nursing home|special education}}

;Humanitarian sanctuary

:A source of help, relief, or comfort in times of trouble typically used by victims of war and disaster.

;Institutional sanctuary

:An institution for the care of people, especially those with physical or mental impairments, who require organized supervision or assistance.

The term "sanctuary" has further come to be applied to any space set aside for private use in which others are not supposed to intrude, such as a "[[man cave]]".


== Non-human sanctuary ==


=== Animal sanctuary ===

{{main|Animal sanctuary}}

An animal sanctuary is a facility where animals are brought to live and be protected for the rest of their lives. Unlike animal shelters, sanctuaries do not seek to place animals with individuals or groups, instead maintaining each animal until his or her natural death.


=== Plant sanctuary ===

{{main|Wildlife preserve}}

Plant sanctuaries are areas set aside to maintain functioning natural ecosystems, to act as refuges for species and to maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes. Protected areas act as benchmarks against which we understand human interactions with the natural world. Today they are often the only hope we have of stopping many threatened or endemic species from becoming extinct.


==See also==

*[[Elvira Arellano]]

*[[La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles]]

*[[Shrine]]


== References ==

{{reflist}}


==Further reading==

* J. Charles Cox (1911). ''The Sanctuaries and Sanctuary Seekers of Medieval England'' [http://archive.org/details/cu31924030330777 On Archive.org]

* John Bellamy (1973). ''Crime and Public Order in England in the Later Middle Ages''.

* [[Richard W. Kaeuper|Richard Kaeuper]] (1982). "Right of asylum". ''Dictionary of the Middle Ages''. v.1 pp.&nbsp;632–633. ISBN 0-684-16760-3


==External links==

*[http://www.newsanctuarymovement.org/build-tradition.htm Sanctuary Movement history on New Standards]

*[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13431a.htm Sanctuary in church architecture] - from the ''Catholic Encyclopedia''

*[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13430a.htm Sanctuary as a place of refuge] - from the ''Catholic Encyclopedia''


[[Category:Safe houses]]

[[Category:Secret places]]

[[Category:Social institutions]]

[[Category:Articles containing video clips]]

[[Category:Sanctuaries| ]]


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