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{{Infobox character

|colour   = tan

|colour text = green

|name    = Tarzan

|image   = [[File:Tarzan of the Apes in color.jpg|First edition cover]]

|caption  = Dust-jacket illustration of ''Tarzan of the Apes''

|first   = ''[[Tarzan of the Apes]]''

|last    = ''[[Tarzan: the Lost Adventure]]''

|creator  = [[Edgar Rice Burroughs]]

|portrayer = [[Elmo Lincoln]]<br />[[Johnny Weissmuller]]<br />[[Lex Barker]]<br />[[Buster Crabbe]]<br />[[Jock Mahoney]]<br />[[Bruce Bennett|Herman Brix]]<br />[[Frank Merrill (actor)|Frank Merrill]]<br />[[Ron Ely]]<br />[[Mike Henry (American football)|Mike Henry]]<br />[[Christopher Lambert]]<br />[[Gordon Scott]]<br />[[Joe Lara]]<br />[[Wolf Larson]]<br />[[Casper Van Dien]]<br />[[Tony Goldwyn]]<br />[[Travis Fimmel]]<br />[[Kellan Lutz]]<br />[[Alexander Skarsgård]]

|alias   = John Clayton<ref>"John Clayton II" in {{cite book |title=[[Tarzan of the Apes]] |first=Edgar Rice |last=Burroughs |authorlink=Edgar Rice Burroughs |year=1914 |chapter=Chapter XXV |quote=our little boy... the second John Clayton}} (Check the next [http://books.google.com/books?id=Nd28jX1ft74C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s&#PPA8,M1 reference])</ref><ref name="Alive-p8">{{cite book |chapter=Chapter One |chapterurl=http://books.google.com/books?id=Nd28jX1ft74C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s&#PPA8,M1 |title=[[Tarzan Alive: A Definitive Biography of Lord Greystoke]] |first=Philip José |last=Farmer |authorlink=Philip José Farmer |year=1972 |page=8}}</ref>

|gender   = Male

|occupation = Adventurer<br>Hunter<br>Trapper<br>Fisherman

|title   = [[Viscount]] Greystoke<ref>{{cite book |title=[[Tarzan, Lord of the Jungle (novel)|Tarzan, Lord of the Jungle]] |first=Edgar Rice |last=Burroughs |authorlink=Edgar Rice Burroughs |year=1928}}</ref><br/>[[Duke]] Greystoke<ref name="Alive-p8"/><br/>[[Earl]] Greystoke<ref>{{cite video |date=1984 |title=[[Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes]] |publisher=[[Warner Bros.]]}}</ref>[[Chieftain]] of the [[Waziri (fictional tribe)|Waziri]]

|family   = 

|spouse   = [[Jane Porter (Tarzan)|Jane Porter]] (wife)

|children  = [[Korak (character)|Korak]] (son)

|relatives = William Cecil Clayton (cousin)<br/>[[Meriem, wife of Korak|Meriem]] (daughter-in-law)<br/>Jackie Clayton (grandson)<ref>{{cite book |title=[[Tarzan and the Ant Men]] |first=Edgar Rice |last=Burroughs |authorlink=Edgar Rice Burroughs |chapter=Chapter Two |year=1924}}</ref><br/>[[Tarzan and the Tarzan Twins|Dick & Doc]] (distant cousins)<br/>[[Bunduki]] (adopted son)<br/>[[Dawn Drummond-Clayton|Dawn]] (great-granddaughter)

|siblings  = 

|nationality= [[England|English]]

|abilities = Enhanced strength, speed, endurance, agility, durability, reflexes, and senses <br/> Able to communicate with animals <br/> Skilled hunter and fighter

}}

'''Tarzan''' is a fictional character, an [[Archetype|archetypal]] [[feral child]] raised in the [[Africa]]n jungles by the ''[[Mangani]]'' great apes; he later experiences civilization only to largely reject it and return to the wild as a heroic adventurer. Created by [[Edgar Rice Burroughs]], Tarzan first appeared in the [[novel]] ''[[Tarzan of the Apes]]'' (magazine publication [[1912 in literature|1912]], book publication [[1914 in literature|1914]]), and subsequently in twenty-five sequels, three authorized books by other authors, and innumerable works in other media, both authorized and unauthorized.


==Character biography==


===Childhood years===

Tarzan is the son of a [[United Kingdom|British]] [[lord]] and [[lady]] who were [[Marooning|marooned]] on the Atlantic coast of [[Africa]] by [[mutiny|mutineers]]. When Tarzan was only an infant, his mother died of natural causes and his father was killed by Kerchak, leader of the ape tribe by whom Tarzan was adopted. From then onwards, Tarzan became a feral child. Tarzan's tribe of apes is known as the [[Mangani]], [[Great Ape]]s of a species unknown to science. Kala is his ape mother. Burroughs added stories occurring during Tarzan's adolescence in his sixth Tarzan book, ''[[Jungle Tales of Tarzan]]''. Tarzan is his ape name; his real [[English language|English]] name is  '''John Clayton, [[Viscount]] Greystoke''' (according to Burroughs in ''[[Tarzan, Lord of the Jungle (novel)|Tarzan, Lord of the Jungle]]''; [[Earl]] of Greystoke in later, less canonical sources, notably the 1984 movie ''[[Greystoke - The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes|Greystoke]]''). In fact, Burroughs's narrator in ''Tarzan of the Apes'' describes both Clayton and Greystoke as fictitious names – implying that, within the fictional world that Tarzan inhabits, he may have a different ''real'' name.

[[File:Tarzan all-story Oct 1912.jpg|thumb| Left, first appearance in ''The All-Story'', October, 1912. Right, first Canadian edition by McClelland, Goodchild, and Stewart, Toronto, 1914.]]


===Adult life===

As a young adult, Tarzan meets a young [[United States|American]] woman, [[Jane Porter (Tarzan)|Jane Porter]]. She, her father, and others of their party are marooned on exactly the same coastal jungle area where Tarzan's biological parents were twenty years earlier. When Jane returns to the United States, Tarzan leaves the jungle in search of her, his one true love. In ''[[The Return of Tarzan]]'', Tarzan and Jane marry. In later books he lives with her for a time in [[England]]. They have one son, Jack, who takes the ape name [[Korak (character)|Korak]] ("the Killer"). Tarzan is contemptuous of the [[hypocrisy]] of [[civilization]], and he and Jane return to Africa, making their home on an extensive estate that becomes a base for Tarzan's later adventures.


==Characterization==

Burroughs created an extreme example of a [[noble savage]] figure largely unalloyed with character flaws or faults. He is described as being [[Caucasian race|Caucasian]], extremely athletic, tall, handsome, and tanned, with grey eyes and long black hair. Emotionally, he is courageous, intelligent, loyal, and steadfast. He is presented as behaving ethically in most situations, except when seeking vengeance under the motivation of grief, as when his ape mother Kala is killed in ''Tarzan of the Apes'', or when he believes Jane has been murdered in ''Tarzan the Untamed''. He is deeply in love with his wife and totally devoted to her; in numerous situations where other women express their attraction to him, Tarzan politely but firmly declines their attentions. When presented with a situation where a weaker individual or party is being preyed upon by a stronger foe, Tarzan invariably takes the side of the weaker party. In dealing with other men, Tarzan is firm and forceful. With male friends, he is reserved but deeply loyal and generous. As a host, he is likewise, generous, and gracious. As a leader, he commands devoted loyalty.


In keeping with these noble characteristics, Tarzan's philosophy embraces an extreme form of "return to nature". Although he is able to pass within society as a civilized individual, he prefers to "strip off the thin veneer of civilization", as Burroughs often puts it.<ref name="return">''The Return of Tarzan'', chapter 2, being the earliest instance.</ref> His preferred dress is a knife and a [[loincloth]] of animal hide, his preferred abode is any convenient tree branch when he desires to sleep, and his favored food is raw meat, killed by himself; even better if he is able to bury it a week so that [[putrefaction]] has had a chance to tenderize it a bit.


Tarzan's [[Anarcho-primitivism|primitivist]] philosophy was absorbed by countless fans, amongst whom was [[Jane Goodall]], who describes the Tarzan series as having a major influence on her childhood. She states that she felt she would be a much better spouse for Tarzan than his fictional wife, Jane, and that when she first began to live among and study the [[chimpanzee]]s she was fulfilling her childhood dream of living among the great apes just as Tarzan did.<ref name="goodall">See The Jane Goodall Institute's Biography of Jane Goodall [http://www.janegoodall.org/janes-story].</ref>


[[Rudyard Kipling]]'s [[Mowgli]] has been cited as a major influence on Edgar Rice Burroughs' creation of Tarzan. Mowgli was also an influence for a number of other [[List of fictional feral children|"wild boy"]] characters.


==Skills and abilities==

Tarzan's jungle upbringing gives him abilities far beyond those of ordinary humans. These include climbing, clinging, and leaping as well as any great ape, or better. He uses branches and hanging vines to swing at great speed, a skill acquired among the anthropoid apes.


His strength, speed, stamina, agility, reflexes, senses, flexibility, durability, endurance, and swimming are extraordinary in comparison to normal men. He has wrestled full grown bull apes and gorillas, lions, rhinos, crocodiles, pythons, sharks, tigers, man-size seahorses (once) and even dinosaurs (when he visited [[Pellucidar]]).


He learns a new language in days, ultimately speaking many languages, including that of the great apes, [[French language|French]], [[English language|English]], [[Dutch language|Dutch]], [[German language|German]], [[Swahili language|Swahili]], many [[Bantu languages|Bantu]] dialects, Arabic, ancient [[Ancient Greek|Greek]], ancient [[Latin]], [[Mayan languages|Mayan]], the languages of the [[Tarzan and the Ant Men|Ant Men]] and of [[Pellucidar]].


He also communicates with many species of jungle animals.


In ''Tarzan's Quest'' (1935), he was one of the recipients of an immortality drug at the end of the book that functionally made him immortal.


==Literature==

{{main|Tarzan (book series)}}

Tarzan has been called one of the best-known literary characters in the world.<ref>John Clute and Peter Nicholls, ''The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction'', St. Martin's Press, 1993, ISBN 0-312-09618-6, p. 178, "Tarzan is a remarkable creation, and possibly the best-known fictional character of the century."</ref> In addition to more than two dozen books by Burroughs and a handful more by authors with the blessing of Burroughs' estate, the character has appeared in [[film]]s, [[radio]], [[television]], [[comic strip]]s, and [[comic books]]. Numerous parodies and pirated works have also appeared.


Burroughs considered other names for the character, including "Zantar" and "Tublat Zan," before he settled on "Tarzan."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.tarzan.org/history_of_tarzan_part2.html |title=Edgar Rice Burroughs Inc |publisher=Tarzan.org |date= |accessdate=2013-05-30}}</ref>


Even though the copyright on ''Tarzan of the Apes'' has [[public domain|expired]] in the [[United States|United States of America]] and other countries, the name Tarzan is claimed as a [[trademark]] of [[Edgar Rice Burroughs, Inc.]]


===Critical reception===

While ''Tarzan of the Apes'' met with some critical success, subsequent books in the series received a cooler reception and have been criticized for being derivative and formulaic. The characters are often said to be two-dimensional, the dialogue wooden, and the storytelling devices (such as excessive reliance on [[coincidence]]) strain credulity. According to author [[Rudyard Kipling]] (who himself wrote stories of a [[feral child]], ''[[The Jungle Book]]'''s [[Mowgli]]), Burroughs wrote ''Tarzan of the Apes'' just so that he could "find out how bad a book he could write and get away with it."<ref>Gail Bederman,''Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917,'' University of Chicago Press, 1995, pages 219.</ref>


While Burroughs is not a polished novelist, he is a vivid storyteller, and many of his novels are still in print.<ref>John Clute and Peter Nicholls, ''The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction'', St. Martin's Press, 1993, ISBN 0-312-09618-6, p. 178, "It has often been said that ERB's works have small literary or intellectual merit. Nevertheless,...because ERB had a genius for the literalization of the dream, they have endured."</ref> In 1963, author [[Gore Vidal]] wrote a piece on the Tarzan series that, while pointing out several of the deficiencies that the Tarzan books have as works of literature, praises Edgar Rice Burroughs for creating a compelling "daydream figure".<ref>[http://www.esquire.com/features/gore-vidal-archive/tarzan-revisited-1263 "Tarzan Revisited" by Gore Vidal].</ref> Critical reception grew more positive with the 1981 study by Erling B. Holtsmark, ''Tarzan and Tradition: Classical Myth in Popular Literature''.<ref>Erling B. Holtsmark, ''Tarzan and Tradition: Classical Myth in Popular Literature,'' Greenwood Press, 1981.</ref> Holtsmark added a volume on Burroughs for Twayne's United States Author Series in 1986.<ref>Erling B. Holtsmark, ''Edgar Rice Burroughs'', Twayne's United States Author Series, Twayne Publishers, 1986.</ref> In 2010, Stan Galloway provided a sustained study of the adolescent period of the fictional Tarzan's life in ''The Teenage Tarzan''.<ref>Stan Galloway, ''The Teenage Tarzan: A Literary Analysis of Edgar Rice Burroughs' Jungle Tales of Tarzan'', McFarland, 2010.</ref>


Despite critical panning, the Tarzan stories have remained popular. Burroughs's [[melodrama]]tic situations and the elaborate details he works into his fictional world, such as his construction of a partial language for his great apes, appeal to a worldwide fan base.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.erblist.com/erbmania/tangor/ape-english.html |title=Bozarth, David Bruce. "Ape-English Dictionary" |publisher=Erblist.com |date= |accessdate=2013-05-30}}</ref>


[[File:Harikalar Diyari Tarzan 06014 nevit.jpg|thumb|left|Tarzan walking, in this display from an Ankara amusement park.]]


The Tarzan books and movies employ extensive [[stereotype|stereotyping]] to a degree common in the times in which they were written. This has led to criticism in later years, with changing social views and customs, including charges of [[racism]] since the early 1970s.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1374/is_5_59/ai_55722257 | work=Humanist | title=Tarzan - Review | first=Bertram | last=Rothschild | year=1999}}</ref> The early books give a pervasively negative and stereotypical portrayal of native [[Africans]], both [[Arab]] and [[Black]]. In ''The Return of Tarzan'', Arabs are "surly looking" and call Christians "dogs", while blacks are "lithe, ebon warriors, gesticulating and jabbering". One could make an equal argument that when it came to blacks that Burroughs was simply depicting unwholesome characters as unwholesome and the good ones in a better light as in Chapter 6 of ''[[Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar]]'' where Burroughs writes of Mugambi, "...nor could a braver or more loyal guardian have been found in any clime or upon any soil."<ref>''Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar'', A.C. McClurg, 1918</ref> Other groups are stereotyped as well. A Swede has "a long yellow moustache, an unwholesome complexion, and filthy nails", and Russians cheat at cards. The aristocracy (except the House of Greystoke) and royalty are invariably effete.<ref>Edgar Rice Burroughs, ''The Return of Tarzan'', Grosset & Dunlap, 1915 ASIN B000WRZ2NG.</ref> In later books, Africans are portrayed somewhat more realistically as people. For example, in ''[[Tarzan's Quest]]'', while the depiction of black Africans remains relatively primitive, they are portrayed more individualistically, with a greater variety of character traits, good and bad, while the main villains are whites. Burroughs never loses his distaste for European royalty, though.<ref>Edgar Rice Burroughs, ''Tarzan's Quest'', Grosset & Dunlop, 1936, ASIN B000O3K9EU.</ref>


Burroughs' opinions, manifested through the narrative voice in the stories, reflect common attitudes in his time, which in a 21st-century context would be considered racist and [[sexist]]. However Thomas F. Bertonneau writes about Burroughs "conception of the feminine that elevates the woman to the same level as the man and that – in such characters as Dian of the Pellucidar novels or Dejah Thoris of the Barsoom novels – figures forth a female type who corresponds neither to desperate housewife, full-lipped prom-date, middle-level careerist office-manager, nor frowning ideological feminist-professor, but who exceeds all these by bounds in her realized humanity and in so doing suggests their insipidity."<ref>[http://www.brusselsjournal.com/node/4066] Edgar Rice Burroughs and Masculine Narrative by Thomas F. Bertonneau</ref> The author is not especially mean-spirited in his attitudes. His heroes do not engage in [[violence against women]] or in [[Ethnic hatred|racially motivated violence]]. In ''Tarzan of the Apes'', details of a background of suffering experienced at the hands of whites by Mbonga's "once great" people are repeatedly told with evident sympathy, and in explanation or even justification of their current animosity toward whites.


Although the character of Tarzan does not directly engage in [[violence against women]], feminist scholars have critiqued the presence of other sympathetic male characters that engage in this violence with Tarzan's approval.<ref name=Torgovnick>{{cite book|last=Torgovnick|first=Mariana|title=Gone Primitive|year=1990|publisher=University of Chicago press|isbn=978-0226808321|pages=42–72|asin=0226808327}}</ref> In ''[[Tarzan and the Ant Men]]'', the men of a fictional tribe of creatures called the Alali gain social dominance of their society by beating the Alali women into submission with weapons that Tarzan willingly provides them.<ref name="Torgovnick"/> Following the battle, Burroughs states: "To entertain Tarzan and to show him what great strides civilization had taken—the son of The First Woman seized a female by the hair and dragging her to him struck her heavily about the head and face with his clenched fist, and the woman fell upon her knees and fondled his legs, looking wistfully into his face, her own glowing with love and admiration. (178)"<ref name="Torgovnick"/> While Burroughs writes some female characters with humanistic equalizing elements, Torgovnick argues that violent scenes against women in the context of male political and social domination are condoned in his writing, reinforcing a notion of gendered hierarchy where [[patriarchy]] is portrayed as the natural pinnacle of society.<ref name="Torgovnick"/>


In regards to race, a superior-inferior relationship with valuation is also accordingly implied, as it is unmistakable in virtually all interactions between whites and blacks in the Tarzan stories, and similar relationships and valuations can be seen in most other interactions between differing people although one could argue that such interactions are the bedrock of the dramatic narrative and without such valuations there is no story. According to [[James Loewen]]'s ''Sundown Towns'', this may be a vestige of Burroughs' having been from [[Oak Park, Illinois]], a former [[Sundown town]] (a town that forbids non-whites from living within it).


Gail Bederman takes a different view in her ''Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917''. There she describes how various people of the time either challenged or upheld the idea that "civilization" is predicated on white masculinity. She closes with a chapter on 1912's ''Tarzan of the Apes'' because the story's protagonist is, according to her, the ultimate male by the standards of 1912 white America. Bederman does note that Tarzan, "an instinctivily chivalrous Anglo-Saxon" does not engage in sexual violence, renouncing his "masculine impulse to rape." However, she also notes that not only does Tarzan kill black man Kulonga in revenge for killing his ape mother (a stand in for his biological white mother) by hanging him, "lyncher Tarzan" actually enjoys killing black people, the cannibalistic Mbongans, for example. Bederman, in fact, reminds readers that when Tarzan first introduces himself to Jane he does so as "Tarzan, the killer of beasts and many black men." The novel climaxes with Tarzan saving Jane—who in the original novel is not British but a white woman from Baltimore, Maryland—from a black ape rapist. When he leaves the jungle and sees "civilized" Africans farming, his first instinct is to kill them just for being black. "Like the lynch victims reported in the Northern press, Tarzan's victims--cowards, cannibals, and despoilers of white womanhood--lack all manhood. Tarzan's lynchings thus prove himself the superior man."


Despite embodying all the tropes of white supremacy espoused or rejected by the people she had reviewed ([[Theodore Roosevelt]], [[G. Stanley Hall]], [[Charlotte Perkins Gilman]], [[Ida B. Wells]]), Bederman states that, in all probability, Burroughs was not trying to make any kind of statement or echo any of them. "He probably never heard of any of them." Instead, Bederman writes that Burroughs proves her point because in telling racist and sexist stories whose protagonist boasted of killing blacks, he was not being unusual at all but was instead just being a typical 1912 white American.


Tarzan is a white European male who grows up with apes. According to "Taking Tarzan Seriously" by Marianna Torgovnick, Tarzan is confused with the social hierarchy that he is a part of. Unlike everyone else in his society, Tarzan is the only one who is not clearly part of any social group. All the other members of Tarzan's world are not able to climb or decline socially because they are already part of a social hierarchy which is stagnant. Turgovnick writes that since Tarzan was raised as an ape, he thinks and acts like an ape. However, instinctively he is human and he resorts to being human when he is pushed to. The reason of his confusion is that he does not understand what the typical white male is supposed to act like. His instincts eventually kick in when he is in the midst of this confusion, and he ends up dominating the jungle. In Tarzan, the jungle is a microcosm for the world in general in 1912 to the early 1930s. His climbing of the social hierarchy proves that the European white male is the most dominant of all races/sexes, no matter what the circumstance. Furthermore, Turgovnick writes that when Tarzan first meets Jane, she is slightly repulsed but also fascinated by his animal-like actions. As the story progresses, Tarzan surrenders his knife to Jane in an oddly chivalrous gesture, which makes Jane fall for Tarzan despite of his odd circumstance. Turgovnick believes that this displays an instinctual, civilized chivalry that Burrough believes is common of white men.


<ref>Gail Bederman,''Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917,'' University of Chicago Press, 1995, pages 224-232.</ref>

<ref>Turgovnick, Mariana “Taking Tarzan Seriously” from Gone Primitive, University of Chicago Press 1990 [Ch 2 pp.42-72]</ref>


===Unauthorized works===

After Burroughs' death a number of writers produced new Tarzan stories. In some instances, the estate managed to prevent publication of such works.{{citation needed|date=October 2012}} The most notable example in the [[United States]] was a series of five novels by the pseudonymous "Barton Werper" that appeared 1964-65 by Gold Star Books (part of [[Charlton Comics]]). As a result of legal action by [[Edgar Rice Burroughs, Inc.]], they were taken off the market and remaining copies destroyed. {{citation needed|date=October 2012}}

Similar series appeared in other countries, notably [[Argentina]], [[Israel]], and some Arab countries.


In Israel in the 1950s and early 1960s there was a thriving industry of locally-produced Tarzan adventures published weekly in 24-page brochures by several competing publishing houses, none of which worked with the Burroughs estate. The stories featured Tarzan in contemporary Africa. A popular theme being his fighting against the [[Mau Mau]] in 1950s [[Kenya]] and single-handedly crushing their revolt several times over. He also fought a great variety of monsters, [[vampires]] and invaders from outer space infesting the African jungles and discovered several more lost cities and cultures in addition to the ones depicted in the Burroughs canon. Some brochures had him meet with Israelis and take Israel's side against her [[Arab]] enemies, especially [[Gamal Abdel Nasser]]'s [[Egypt]].


None of the brochures credited an author, and the various publishers - "Elephant Publishing" ({{lang-he|הוצאת הפיל}}), "Rhino Publishing" ({{lang-he|הוצאת הקרנף}}) and several similar names - provided no more of an address than POB numbers in [[Tel Aviv]] and [[Jerusalem]]. These Tarzan brochures were extremely popular among Israeli youths of the time, successfully competing with the numerous Hebrew translations of the original Tarzan novels. The Tarzan brochures faded out by the middle 1960s. Surviving copies have fetched high prices as collectors' items in the Israeli used-book market. Researcher [[Eli Eshed]] has spent considerable time and effort on the Tarzan brochures and other Israeli [[pulp magazines]] and paperbacks.<ref>[http://www.violetbooks.com/tarzan-israel.html Violet Books: Tarzan in Israel<!-- Bot generated title -->].</ref>


The "Barton Werper" novels still exist and are available via the Internet <ref>http://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/literature/fiction/fiction_books/Werper,%20Barton/_thisdir.html</ref>

In the 1950s new Tarzan stories were also published in [[Syria]] and [[Lebanon]]. Tarzan in these versions was a staunch supporter of the Arab cause and helped his Arab friends foil various fiendish Israeli plots.<ref>James R. Nesteby,'Tarzan of Arabia', in the [[Journal of Popular Culture]], volume 15, number 1, 1981.</ref>


===Modern fiction===

In 1972, [[Science fiction]] author [[Philip José Farmer]] wrote ''[[Tarzan Alive]]'', a biography of Tarzan utilizing the [[Frame tale|frame device]] that he was a real person. In Farmer's fictional universe, Tarzan, along with [[Doc Savage]] and [[Sherlock Holmes]], are the cornerstones of the [[Wold Newton family]]. Farmer wrote two novels, ''[[Hadon of Ancient Opar]]'' and ''[[Flight to Opar]]'', set in the distant past and giving the antecedents of the lost city of Opar, which plays an important role in the Tarzan books. In addition, Farmer's ''[[A Feast Unknown]]'', and its two sequels ''[[Lord of the Trees]]'' and ''[[The Mad Goblin]]'', are pastiches of the Tarzan and Doc Savage stories, with the premise that they tell the story of the real characters the fictional characters are based upon. ''A Feast Unknown'' is somewhat infamous among Tarzan and Doc Savage fans for its graphic violence and sexual content.{{citation needed|date=November 2012}}


==Tarzan in film and other non-print media==

{{main|Tarzan in film and other non-print media}}

[[File:Poster - Tarzan the Fearless 01.jpg|thumb|Tarzan, as depicted by [[Buster Crabbe]] in the film serial ''[[Tarzan the Fearless]]'']]


===Film===

The [[Internet Movie Database]] lists 200 movies with Tarzan in the title between 1918 and 2014. The first Tarzan movies were silent pictures adapted from the original Tarzan novels, which appeared within a few years of the character's creation. The first actor to portray the adult Tarzan was [[Elmo Lincoln]] in 1918's ''Tarzan Of The Apes''. With the advent of talking pictures, a popular Tarzan movie franchise was developed, which lasted from the 1930s through the 1960s. Starting with ''[[Tarzan the Ape Man (1932 film)|Tarzan the Ape Man]]'' in 1932 through twelve films until 1948, the franchise was anchored by former [[Olympic Games|Olympic]] swimmer [[Johnny Weissmuller]] in the title role. Weissmuller and his immediate successors were enjoined to portray the ape-man as a [[noble savage]] speaking broken English, in marked contrast to the cultured aristocrat of Burroughs's novels.


With the exception of the Burroughs co-produced ''[[The New Adventures of Tarzan]]'', this "me Tarzan, you Jane" characterization of Tarzan persisted until the late 1950s, when producer [[Sy Weintraub]], having bought the film rights from producer [[Sol Lesser]], produced ''[[Tarzan's Greatest Adventure]]'' followed by eight other films and a television series.  The Weintraub productions portray a Tarzan that is closer to Edgar Rice Burroughs' original concept in the novels: a jungle lord who speaks grammatical English and is well educated and familiar with civilization. Most Tarzan films made before the mid-fifties were black-and-white films shot on studio sets, with stock jungle footage edited in. The Weintraub productions from 1959 on were shot in foreign locations and were in color.


There were also several serials and features that competed with the main franchise, including ''[[Tarzan the Fearless]]'' (1933) starring [[Buster Crabbe]] and ''[[The New Adventures of Tarzan]]'' (1935) starring [[Bruce Bennett|Herman Brix]]. The latter serial was unique for its period in that it was partially filmed on location (Guatemala) and portrayed Tarzan as educated. It was the only Tarzan film project for which [[Edgar Rice Burroughs]] was personally involved in the production.


Tarzan films from the 1930s on often featured Tarzan's chimpanzee companion [[Cheeta]], his consort Jane (not usually given a last name), and an adopted son, usually known only as "Boy." The Weintraub productions from 1959 on dropped the character of Jane and portrayed Tarzan as a lone adventurer. Later Tarzan films have been occasional and somewhat idiosyncratic. Recently, [[Tony Goldwyn]] portrayed Tarzan in [[Walt Disney Pictures|Disney’s]] [[Tarzan (1999 film)|animated film of the same name]] (1999). This version marked a new beginning for the ape man, taking its inspiration equally from Burroughs and the 1984 film ''[[Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes]]''.


===Radio===

Tarzan was the hero of two popular radio programs in the [[United States]]. The first aired from 1932–1936 with [[James Pierce]] in the role of Tarzan. The second ran from 1951–1953 with [[Lamont Johnson]] in the title role.<ref>Robert R. Barrett, ''Tarzan on Radio'', Radio Spirits, 1999.</ref>


===Television===

Television later emerged as a primary vehicle bringing the character to the public. From the mid-1950s, all the extant sound Tarzan films became staples of Saturday morning television aimed at young and teenaged viewers. In 1958, movie Tarzan [[Gordon Scott]] filmed three episodes for a prospective television series. The program did not sell, but a different live action ''[[Tarzan (NBC series)|Tarzan]]'' series produced by [[Sy Weintraub]] and starring [[Ron Ely]] ran on [[NBC]] from 1966 to 1968. An animated series from [[Filmation]], ''[[Tarzan, Lord of the Jungle]]'', aired from 1976 to 1977, followed by the anthology programs ''[[Batman/Tarzan Adventure Hour]]'' (1977–1978), ''[[Tarzan and the Super 7]]'' (1978–1980), ''[[The Tarzan/Lone Ranger Adventure Hour]]'' (1980–1981), and ''[[The Tarzan/Lone Ranger/Zorro Adventure Hour]]'') (1981–1982). [[Joe Lara]] starred in the title role in ''[[Tarzan in Manhattan]]'' (1989), an offbeat TV movie, and later returned in a completely different interpretation in ''[[Tarzan: The Epic Adventures]]'' (1996), a new live-action series. In between the two productions with Lara, ''[[Tarzán]]'', a half-hour syndicated series ran from 1991 through 1994. In this version of the show, Tarzan was portrayed as a blond environmentalist, with Jane turned into a French ecologist. Disney’s animated series ''[[The Legend of Tarzan]]'' (2001–2003) was a spin-off from its animated film. The latest television series was the live-action ''[[Tarzan (WB series)|Tarzan]]'' (2003), which starred male model [[Travis Fimmel]] and updated the setting to contemporary [[New York City]], with Jane as a police detective, played by [[Sarah Wayne Callies]]. The series was cancelled after only eight episodes. A 1981 television special, ''[[wikiasite:muppet:The Muppets Go to the Movies|The Muppets Go to the Movies]]'', features a short sketch titled "Tarzan and Jane". [[Lily Tomlin]] plays Jane opposite [[Gonzo (Muppet)|The Great Gonzo]] as Tarzan. In addition, the Muppets have [[wikiasite:muppet:Tarzan|made reference to Tarzan on half a dozen occasions]] since the 1960s. ''[[Saturday Night Live]]'' featured recurring sketches with the speech-impaired trio of [[History of Saturday Night Live (1985–1990)|"Frankenstein, Tonto, and Tarzan"]].


===Stage===

A 1921 Broadway production of ''Tarzan of The Apes'' starred Ronald Adair as Tarzan and Ethel Dwyer as Jane Porter. In 1976, [[Richard O'Brien]] wrote a musical entitled ''T. Zee'', loosely based on Tarzan but restyled in a rock idiom. ''[[Tarzan (musical)|Tarzan]]'', a musical stage adaptation of the 1999 animated feature, opened at the [[Richard Rodgers Theatre]] on Broadway on May 10, 2006. The show, a [[Disney Theatrical]] production, was directed and designed by Bob Crowley. The same version of Tarzan that was played at the [[Richard Rodgers Theatre]] is being played throughout Europe and has been a huge success in the Netherlands. The Broadway show closed on July 8, 2007. Tarzan also appeared in the ''Tarzan Rocks!'' show at the Theatre in the Wild at [[Walt Disney World Resort]]'s [[Disney's Animal Kingdom]]. The show closed in 2006.


===Video and computer games===

In the mid-1980s there was an arcade video game called ''[[Jungle Hunt|Jungle King]]'' that featured a [[Tarzanesque]] character in a loin cloth. A game under the title ''[[Tarzan Goes Ape]]'' was released in the 1980s for the [[Commodore 64]]. A ''[[Tarzan (computer game)|Tarzan]]'' computer game by Michael Archer was produced by [[Martech]]. Disney's Tarzan had seen video games released for the [[PlayStation]], [[Nintendo 64]] and [[Game Boy Color]]. Followed by ''[[Disney's Tarzan Untamed]]'' for the PS2 and Gamecube. Tarzan also appeared in the PS2 game ''[[Kingdom Hearts]],'' although this Tarzan was shown in the Disney context, not the original conceptional idea of Tarzan by Bourroughs. In the first ''[[Rayman]]'', a Tarzannesque version of Rayman named Tarayzan appears in the Dream Forest.


===Action figures===

Throughout the 1970s [[Mego Corporation]] licensed the Tarzan character and produced 8" action figures which they included in their "World's Greatest Super Heroes" line of characters.  In 1975 they also produced a 3" "Bendy" figure made of poseable, malleable plastic.


===Ephemera===

Several Tarzan-themed products have been manufactured, including [[View-Master]] reels and packets, numerous Tarzan coloring books, children's books, follow-the-dots, and activity books.


==Tarzan in comics==

{{main|Tarzan (comics)}}

''Tarzan of the Apes'' was adapted in newspaper strip form, in early 1929, with illustrations by [[Hal Foster]]. A [[full page]] [[Sunday strip]] began March 15, 1931 by [[Rex Maxon]]. Over the years, many artists have drawn the ''Tarzan'' comic strip, notably [[Burne Hogarth]], [[Russ Manning]], and [[Mike Grell]]. The daily strip began to reprint old dailies after the last Russ Manning daily (#10,308, which ran on 29 July 1972). The Sunday strip also turned to reprints circa 2000. Both strips continue as reprints today in a few newspapers and in ''[[Comics Revue]]'' magazine. [[NBM Publishing]] did a high quality reprint series of the Foster and Hogarth work on Tarzan in a series of hardback and paperback reprints in the 1990s.


Tarzan has appeared in many comic books from numerous publishers over the years. The character's earliest comic book appearances were in comic strip reprints published in several titles, such as ''Sparkler'', ''Tip Top Comics'' and ''Single Series''. [[Western Publishing]] published ''Tarzan'' in [[Dell Comics]]'s ''[[Four Color|Four Color Comics]]'' #134 & 161 in 1947, before giving him his own series, ''Tarzan'', published through [[Dell Comics]] and later [[Gold Key Comics]] from January–February 1948 to February 1972). [[DC Comics|DC]] took over the series in 1972, publishing ''Tarzan'' #207-258 from April 1972 to February 1977, including work by [[Joe Kubert]]. In 1977 the series moved to [[Marvel Comics]], which restarted the numbering rather than assuming that used by the previous publishers. Marvel issued ''Tarzan'' #1-29 (as well as three Annuals), from June 1977 to October 1979, mainly by [[John Buscema]]. Following the conclusion of the Marvel series the character had no regular comic book publisher for a number of years. During this period [[Blackthorne Comics]] published ''Tarzan'' in 1986, and [[Malibu Comics]] published ''Tarzan'' comics in 1992. [[Dark Horse Comics]] has published various ''Tarzan'' series from 1996 to the present, including reprints of works from previous publishers like Gold Key and DC, and joint projects with other publishers featuring crossovers with other characters.


There have also been a number of different comic book projects from other publishers over the years, in addition to various minor appearances of Tarzan in other comic books. The Japanese [[manga]] series ''Jungle no Ouja Ta-chan'' ([[Jungle King Tar-chan]]) by [[Tokuhiro Masaya]] was based loosely on Tarzan. Also, manga "god" [[Osamu Tezuka]] created a Tarzan manga in 1948 entitled ''Tarzan no Himitsu Kichi'' (''Tarzan's Secret Base'').


==Works inspired by Tarzan==

In the 1940s, the Finnish writer Lahja Valakivi published four adventure novels about ''[[Tarsa karhumies]]'', i.e., [[Tarsa the Bear Man]]. The books were obviously inspired by Tarzan, but they were adapted into a Finnish setting: as there are no apes in Finland, the hero Tarsa was raised by bears instead.<ref>[http://bibliografia.kuopio.fi/kirjailijat/v/valakivi_l/ Valakivi, Lahja {{fi}}<!-- Bot generated title -->].</ref>

Tarzan was an early inspiration for the character of [[Superman]].When asked about his inspiration, [[Jerry Siegal]]-co-creator of the Man of Steel named Tarzan as an early influence,along another Burroughs character [[John Carter]]. Yes, the “King of the Apes” evolved into the spandex-wearing, cape flourishing, defender of Metropolis. <ref>http://www.omgfacts.com/lists/9079/Tarzan-was-an-early-inspiration-for-the-character-of-Superman</ref>

Tarzan's popularity inspired numerous imitators that appeared in [[pulp magazine]]s. A number of these like [[Kwa of the Jungle|Kwa]] and [[Ka-Zar of the pulps|Ka-Zar]] were direct or loosely veiled copies, others like [[Polaris of the Snows]] were similar characters in different settings, or with different gimmicks. Of these characters the most popular was [[Ki-Gor]], he starred in fifty-nine novels that appeared between winter 1939 to spring 1954 in the magazine [[Jungle Stories]].<ref>{{cite book |title= The Great Pulp Heroes |last= Hutchison |first= Don |year= 2007 |publisher= Book Republic Press |isbn= 978-1-58042-184-3|page= 195}}</ref>.Ka-Zar,was also revamped as a Marvel character living among the [[Savage Land]].Although not obvious at first,[[Marvel Comics]] [[Underwater]][[hero]] [[Prince Namor]],the [[Sub-Mariner]] is a kind of underwater Tarzan.


In 1946, the animated Disney film ''[[Frank Duck Brings 'Em Back Alive]]'' depicted Goofy as a Tarzan-like "wild man" living in the jungle.


In 1950, the [[Italian comics]] series [[Akim (comics)|Akim]] was created as a rather straight copy of Tarzan. It was published between 1950-1967, and 1976-1983.

[[Frank Frazetta]] illustrated a Tarzan inspired character in the Fifties called [[Thun'da]]


In 1967, [[Jay Ward Productions]] released the animated series ''[[George of the Jungle]]'', a Tarzanesque ape man. Later on a [[George of the Jungle (film)|film]] was made starring [[Brendan Fraser]], later a [[direct-to-video]] [[George of the Jungle 2|sequel]] was made.


Disney released ''[[The World's Greatest Athlete]]'' in 1973, which was about a Tarzanesque figure named Nanu ([[Jan-Michael Vincent]]) who was spotted by a Safari guide with American [[Coach (sport)|coach]]es to participate in sports competitions.


In 2007, a [[Canada|Canadian]] [[George of the Jungle (2007 TV series)|remake]] of the original George of the Jungle cartoon was made, it aired on [[Teletoon (Canadian TV channel)|Teletoon]] in Canada and [[Cartoon Network]] in America. A [[George of the Jungle and the Search for the Secret|video game]] based on the show released for the [[Wii]], [[PlayStation 2|PS2]], and the [[Nintendo DS]].


As [[Red Sonja]] is to [[Conan the Barbarian]], Sheena is to Tarzan.Female Tarzans were as numerous as their male counterparts. The original female takeoff of the jungle lord, [[Sheena]] was created by [[Will Eisner]]’s studio partner [[S.M. Iger]] under the pseudonym W. Morgan Thomas, probably with at least some input from Eisner. Combining the the jungle orphan adventure of Tarzan and other characters in literature with bouncy, rippling girl-flesh rendered fantastically by Eisner, [[Robert Webb]], and [[Bob Powell]], Sheena was an instant success, becoming the first female character to have her own title.

She was so popular that at one point she even seemed to threaten Tarzan’s place atop the jungle, with her own television series in the fifties inspiring millions of future pervs, and [[Sheena, Queen of the Jungle]].literally dozens of her own imitators: [[Cave Girl]], [[Camilla]], [[Lorna the Jungle Girl]],[[Jann of the Jungle]] and [[Shanna the She-Devil]], and [[Fletcher Hanks]]’ insane [[Fantomah]] among them. Daughter of some highborn twerp named Cardwell Rivington — not a cool name, that sounds like a law-firm that got a fratboy off for rape — and raised by a witch doctor, Sheena could communicate with the animals, but in most cases seemed to prefer fighting them. Feisty,she spawned two tv series,and a movie decades apart.

Throughout the years the rights to Sheena have been held by several publisher.[[Jana of the Jungle]] was another female Tarzan.The series is essentially about a female version of Tarzan named Jana (voiced by B.J. Ward), who traveled to the rain forests of South America in search of her lost father (whom she never finds). Her father vanished in a boating accident when she was still a child. She has long blonde hair, wears a dress made of unspecified animal skin and a necklace which doubles as a throwable weapon (somewhat similar to the chakram that would be the weapon of choice for the later, live-action Xena, Warrior Princess) given to her by her father. Besides her animal friends Ghost the albino jaguar and Tiko the coatimundi (the latter more resembled a Water Opossum), Jana has two human friends: Dr. Ben Cooper (Michael Bell) and Montaro (Ted Cassidy), a descendant of a lost warrior tribe who is armed with a supernatural weapon known as the Staff of Power that can cause earthquake shockwaves when it strikes the ground. Montaro rescued Jana from the boat accident in which her father disappeared.


Sergei Kravinoff, a.k.a. [[Kraven the Hunter]], is the cruel mirror held up Tarzan. Like Tarzan, he’s an orphan, but not by plane crash or shipwreck. After the Bolsheviks murdered the Tsar, Kravinoff’s family were chased out of Russia and forced to live in abject poverty in foreign lands, an experience that eventually killed his parents. Sergei survived by learning to hunt, and eventually made his way to Africa, where he became Kraven, the most famous big-game hunter in the world.

When animals no longer appease him, he moves on to men and then supermen, with Spider-Man as his primary quarry. Like Tarzan, he reveres animals, hunting only with his bare hands. Whether it was initially intended or simply accumulated through years of storytelling, the perverse mix of nobility and savagery of Kraven can’t help but make you think of Earl Greystoke, so-called King of the Apes. Unlike Tarzan, Kraven indulges in shamanistic hunting rituals like the ingestion of toxic substances and adorning oneself with freshly-skinned costumes. Allegedly.



Like many of Alan Moore’s America’s Best Comics characters, [[Tom Strong]] was a hybrid/amalgamation/mashup of classic characters. In Tom Strong, Moore and artist Chris Sprouse combined the origins of Tarzan with Doc Savage to fantastic effect. Marooned in a savage environment, the Strong family had the distinct advantage of scientific genius on its side. While living on the mysterious island of Attabar Teru, Tom’s parents performed “gravity experiments” that gave him superhuman strength.


Though not raised by or lord to animals, Tom Strong goes on to have great relationships with the island’s native inhabitants, ingesting his tribe’s life-lengthening Goloka Root, marrying a local girl and conceiving a daughter, as well as a strong friendship with King Solomon, a talking gorilla. In a way, maybe Tom Strong was more like [[Doc Savage]] dropped into Tarzan’s environment and given the same task as Planetary, debunking Burroughs’ fallacy. If anything, Strong is a beneficiary of the generosity of the people of Attabar Teru, but it helped that Strong kicked the crap out of a few hundred Nazis.


[[Warren Ellis]]' and [[John Cassaday]]'s [[Planetary (comics)|Planetary]] features in its issues 1 and 17 a British Tarzan-like character, Kevin Sack, Lord Blackstock, who was "lost as an infant, raised by jungle fauna" and now (the 1930s in issue 17) "comes back to Africa every few years".

Analogues count as well imatations in The fantastic Planetary by Warren Ellis, John Cassaday, and Laura Martin used alternate take on classic pulp characters as the bedrock for its rich history of the impossible. Ellis’s take on Tarzan was a concise exploration of the inherent racism of the character without tarnishing the qualities that make him iconic.

Unfortunately, yes, Edgar Rice Burroughs was a racist. And he wasn’t even that good a writer, he just had good ideas. Except for the racist ones. Burroughs believed that white people were naturally superior to black people, and that even under the worst circumstances, whites would eventually rule blacks. Thus you have a white orphan rising up to rule not only the apes, but the African tribes that helped the ungrateful little orphan survive.


In Planetary, Kevin Sack, the orphaned Lord Blackstock, befriends the hidden African society of Opak-Re, a highly technologically-advanced society of native Africans. Ellis quickly implodes the theory of natural white rule with evolutionary law: hoever has the best toys wins. Though Blackstock feels his lineage makes him superior to all non-aristocracy, Opak-Re demands blood purity in their society, and rejects the child fathered by him, future Planetary team nut-buster Jakita Wagner. Perhaps the best single issue of the series, Planetary 17, tells the story of Lord Blackstock and Opak-Re, and the fallacy behind Tarzan’s adventurous vaneer.


The Japanese [[manga]] series "[[Jungle no Ouja Ta-chan]]" (Ta-chan, King of the Jungle) by [[Tokuhiro Masaya]] was based loosely on Tarzan. It was later made into an anime series. It featured the characters of Tarzan and his wife Jane, who had become obese after settling down with Tarzan. The series begins as a comical parody of Tarzan, but later expands to other settings, such as a martial arts tournament in China, professional wrestling in America, and even a fight with vampires.


The late comedian [[George Carlin]] mentioned Tarzan when he was doing his [[HBO]] stand up [[It's Bad For Ya]] when he was talking about how to deal with boring people in public or on the phone.


In Asia, Philippine Cinema's inclination in satirizing western entertainment produced ''Starzan'', a comedy film loosely based on the original Tarzan franchise. It stars Filipino comedic actor Joey De Leon as Starzan, Rene Requiestas as "Chitae", and Zsa Zsa Padilla as Jane.


Tarzan appears briefly as a character in the book ''Lust'',<ref>{{Cite book|title=Lust: Or No Harm Done |publisher=Amazon.co.uk |date= |asin=0312312121 |asin-tld=co.uk }}</ref> by [[Geoff Ryman]].


[[Neil Gaiman]]'s [[The Graveyard Book]] had some similar concepts from Tarzan.


[[Warren Ellis]]' and [[John Cassaday]]'s [[Planetary (comics)|Planetary]] features in its issues 1 and 17 a British Tarzan-like character, Kevin Sack, Lord Blackstock, who was "lost as an infant, raised by jungle fauna" and now (the 1930s in issue 17) "comes back to Africa every few years".


==In popular culture==

Tarzan is often used as a [[nickname]] to indicate a similarity between a person's characteristics and that of the fictional character. Individuals with an exceptional 'ape-like' ability to climb, cling and leap beyond that of ordinary humans may often receive the nickname 'Tarzan'.<ref>[http://www.herald.ie/news/courts/taxiqueue-jumper-punched-reveller-in-tarzanstyle-attack-2837390.html ]{{dead link|date=May 2013}} {{dead link|date=October 2012}}</ref> An example is retired [[United States|American]] [[baseball]] player [[Joe Wallis]].<ref>{{cite web|author=|url=http://www.hardballtimes.com/main/article/cooperstown-confidential-tarzan-joe-wallis1/ |last=Markusen|first= Bruce|title=Cooperstown Confidential: Tarzan Joe Wallis|publisher=Hardballtimes.com |date=2009-08-14 |accessdate=2013-05-30}}</ref>


British politician [[Michael Heseltine]] is nicknamed Tarzan, and was often portrayed as such in the press.


The Jungle Book character [[Mowgli]] is similar to Tarzan in the sense they are raised by animals, though [[Rudyard Kipling|Kipling]]'s stories featuring him first appeared in 1893, predating Burrough's works.


Comedian [[Carol Burnett]] was often prompted by her audiences to perform her trademark [[Tarzan yell]].  She explained that it originated in her youth when she and a friend watched a Tarzan movie.<ref>{{cite web|author=|url=http://www.hulu.com/watch/479605 |last=King|first=Larry|title=Larry King interviews Carol Burnett|publisher=Hulu.com |date=2013-04-17 |accessdate=2014-07-17}}</ref>


==Bibliography==

[[File:Bookplate of Edgar Rice Burroughs.jpg|thumb|Bookplate of Edgar Rice Burroughs, showing '''Tarzan''' holding the planet Mars, surrounded by other characters from Burroughs' stories. Circa 1918, designed by Studley Oldham Burroughs, the author's nephew<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.exlibris-art.com/edgar-rice-burroughs |title=Letter by E. R. Burroughs |publisher=Exlibris-art.com |date=1922-02-04 |accessdate=2013-05-30}}</ref>]]


===By Edgar Rice Burroughs===

;Main Series

#''[[Tarzan of the Apes]]'' (1912) ([[Project Gutenberg]] Entry:[http://gutenberg.org/etext/78 Ebook]) ([http://librivox.org/tarzan-of-the-apes/ LibriVox.org Audiobook])

#''[[The Return of Tarzan]]'' (1913) ([http://gutenberg.org/etext/81 Ebook]) ([http://librivox.org/the-return-of-tarzan-by-edgar-rice-burroughs/ Audiobook])

#''[[The Beasts of Tarzan]]'' (1914) ([http://gutenberg.org/etext/85 Ebook]) ([http://librivox.org/the-beasts-of-tarzan/ Audiobook])

#''[[The Son of Tarzan]]'' (1914) ([http://gutenberg.org/etext/90 Ebook]) ([http://librivox.org/son-of-tarzan-by-edgar-rice-burroughs/ Audiobook])

#''[[Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar]]'' (1916) ([http://gutenberg.org/etext/92 Ebook]) ([http://librivox.org/tarzan-and-the-jewels-of-opar-by-edgar-rice-burroughs/ Audiobook])

#''[[Jungle Tales of Tarzan]]'' (1919) ([http://gutenberg.org/etext/106 Ebook]) ([http://librivox.org/jungle-tales-of-tarzan-by-edgar-rice-burroughs/ Audiobook])

#*"Tarzan's First Love" (1916)

#*"The Capture of Tarzan" (1916)

#*"The Fight for the Balu" (1916)

#*"The God of Tarzan" (1916)

#*"Tarzan and the Black Boy" (1917)

#*"The Witch-Doctor Seeks Vengeance" (1917)

#*"The End of Bukawai" (1917)

#*"The Lion" (1917)

#*"The Nightmare" (1917)

#*"The Battle for Teeka" (1917)

#*"A Jungle Joke" (1917)

#*"Tarzan Rescues the Moon" (1917)

#''[[Tarzan the Untamed]]'' (1920) ([http://gutenberg.org/etext/1401 Ebook])

#*"Tarzan and the Huns" (1919)

#*"Tarzan and the Valley of Luna" (1920)

#''[[Tarzan the Terrible]]'' (1921) ([http://gutenberg.org/etext/2020 Ebook]) ([http://librivox.org/tarzan-the-terrible-by-edgar-rice-burroughs/ Audiobook])

#''[[Tarzan and the Golden Lion]]'' (1922, 1923) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks01/0100271.txt Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan and the Ant Men]]'' (1924) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0600651h.html Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan, Lord of the Jungle (novel)|Tarzan, Lord of the Jungle]]'' (1927, 1928) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0600681.txt Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan and the Lost Empire]]'' (1928) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0600911.txt Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan at the Earth's Core]]'' (1929) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0601071h.html Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan the Invincible]]'' (1930, 1931) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks05/0500191h.html Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan Triumphant]]'' (1931) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0601121.txt Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan and the City of Gold]]'' (1932) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks05/0500241.txt Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan and the Lion Man]]'' (1933, 1934) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0600711.txt Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan and the Leopard Men]]'' (1935) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks05/0500201h.html Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan's Quest]]'' (1935, 1936) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0601011.txt Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan and the Forbidden City]]'' (1938) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0600671.txt Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan the Magnificent (novel)|Tarzan the Magnificent]]'' (1939) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks05/0500211h.html Ebook])

#*"Tarzan and the Magic Men" (1936)

#*"Tarzan and the Elephant Men" (1937–1938)

#''[[Tarzan and the Foreign Legion]]'' (1947) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0600701.txt Ebook])

#''[[Tarzan and the Madman]]'' (1964)

#''[[Tarzan and the Castaways]]'' (1965)

#*"Tarzan and the Castaways" (1941) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0600661.txt Ebook])

#*"Tarzan and the Champion" (1940)

#*"Tarzan and the Jungle Murders" (1940)


:*''[[Tarzan and the Tarzan Twins]]'' (1963, for younger readers)

:**"The Tarzan Twins" (1927) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0601161.txt Ebook])

:**"Tarzan and the Tarzan Twins and Jad-Bal-Ja the Golden Lion" (1936) ([http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks09/0900371.txt Ebook])

</ol>

:*''[[Tarzan: the Lost Adventure]]'' (with [[Joe R. Lansdale]]) (1995)


===By other authors===

*Barton Werper – these novels were never authorized by the Burroughs estate, were taken off the market and remaining copies destroyed.

*#''Tarzan and the Silver Globe'' (1964)

*#''Tarzan and the Cave City'' (1964)

*#''Tarzan and the Snake People'' (1964)

*#''Tarzan and the Abominable Snowmen'' (1965)

*#''Tarzan and the Winged Invaders'' (1965)


*[[Fritz Leiber]] – the first novel authorized by the Burroughs estate, and numbered as the 25th book in the Tarzan series.

**''[[Tarzan and the Valley of Gold (novel)|Tarzan and the Valley of Gold]]'' (1966)


*[[Philip José Farmer]]

**A character based on Tarzan (Lord Grandrith) appears in the Nine trilogy:

***''[[A Feast Unknown]]'' (circa 1969)

***''[[Lord of the Trees]]'' (circa 1970)

***''[[The Mad Goblin]]'' (circa 1970)

**''[[Tarzan Alive]]'' (1972) a fictional biography of Tarzan (here Lord Greystoke), which is one of the two foundational books (along with ''[[Doc Savage: His Apocalyptic Life]]'') of the [[Wold Newton family]].

**''[[Time's Last Gift]]'' (1972) this unauthorized novel explains how Tarzan (specified by inference, but not specifically named as such) can be in Ancient Opar (see below)

**''[[The Adventure of the Peerless Peer]]'' (1974) [[Sherlock Holmes]] goes to Africa and meets Tarzan.

** The Opar novels – authorized by the Burroughs estate. A secondary character of the Opar novels — while not specifically named as "Tarzan" — was intended to be Tarzan by Farmer, and is included as such by most [[Wold Newton family]] scholars.

***''[[Hadon of Ancient Opar]]'' (1974)

***''[[Flight to Opar]]'' (1976)

**''[[The Dark Heart of Time]]'' (1999) this novel was specifically authorized by the Burroughs estate, and references Tarzan by name rather than just by inference. The story is set between ''Tarzan the Untamed'' and ''Tarzan the Terrible''.

:Farmer also wrote a novel based on his own fascination with Tarzan, entitled ''[[Lord Tyger]]'', and translated the novel ''Tarzan of the Apes'' into [[Esperanto]].


*[[R. A. Salvatore]]

**''[[Tarzan: The Epic Adventures]]'' (1996) an authorized novel based on the pilot episode of the series of the same name.


*[[Nigel Cox (author)|Nigel Cox]]

**''[[Tarzan Presley (novel)|Tarzan Presley]]'' (2004) This novel combines aspects of Tarzan and [[Elvis Presley]] into a single character named Tarzan Presley, within [[New Zealand]] and [[United States|American]] settings. Upon its release, it was subject to legal action in the [[United States]], and has not been reprinted since its initial publication.


==New Tarzan==

Publisher Faber and Faber with the backing of the Edgar Rice Burroughs, Inc. have updated the series using Author [[Andy Briggs]] and in 2011 he published the first of the books.  ''[[Tarzan: The Greystoke Legacy]]''<ref>[http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/jun/30/tarzan-new-novels guardian.co.uk] also [http://www.erbzine.com/mag34/3424.html Edgar Rice Burroughs, Inc.] and [http://www.southport.tv/silverlight/Andy-Briggs/USER-HP%2029-03-2012%2013.02.00/ Southport.TV (video interview)]</ref>  In 2012 [[Andy Briggs]] published the second book "Tarzan: The Jungle Warrior"<ref>[http://formbybooks.tbpcontrol.co.uk/tbp.direct/customeraccesscontrol/Home.aspx?collection=11218942&d=formbybooks&s=C&r=10001030&ui=0&bc=0 Formby Books] also [http://www.southportvisiter.co.uk/southport-entertainment/2012/07/03/host-of-authors-set-to-thrill-book-lovers-with-sefton-literary-events-101022-31300703/  Southport Visitor] and [http://www.southportreporter.com/557/557-4.shtml Southport Reporter]</ref>  In 2013, Andy Briggs has published the third book "Tarzan: The Savage Lands".


==See also==

*[[Adam]] 

*[[Enkidu]]

*[[Mowgli]]


==Footnotes==

{{reflist|30em}}


==Further reading==

* Annette Wannamaker and Michelle Ann Abate, eds. ''Global Perspectives on Tarzan: From King of the Jungle to International Icon'' (Routledge; 2012) 216 pages; studies by scholars from the U.S., Australia, Canada, Israel, the Netherlands, Germany, and France.


==External links==

{{Commons category|Tarzan}}

* [http://www.tarzan.com/ Official Tarzan and Edgar Rice Burroughs Web Site]

* [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/results?subject=Tarzan+%28Fictitious+character%29 Tarzan eBooks by Project Gutenberg]

* [http://creatureofthewheel.wordpress.com/2014/08/27/tarzan/ Empire Magazine Tarzan centenary feature]


{{Tarzan}}

{{Burroughs (books)}}


[[Category:Tarzan| ]]

[[Category:Tarzan characters]]

[[Category:Disney's Tarzan characters]]

[[Category:Fantasy books by series]]

[[Category:Fantasy by franchise]]

[[Category:Fantasy film characters]]

[[Category:Fictional characters introduced in 1912]]

[[Category:Fictional English people]]

[[Category:Fictional feral children]]

[[Category:Fictional nobility]]

[[Category:Fictional orphans]]

[[Category:Film serial characters]]

[[Category:Jungle men]]

[[Category:Jungle superheroes]]

[[Category:Kingdom Hearts characters]]

[[Category:Series of books]]

[[Category:1930s American radio programs]]

[[Category:1950s American radio programs]]

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