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For the remake series, see The Outer Limits (1995 TV series).Template:Infobox television The Outer Limits is an American television series that aired on ABC from 1963 to 1965. The series is similar in style to the earlier The Twilight Zone, but with a greater emphasis on science fiction, rather than fantasy stories. The Outer Limits is an anthology of self-contained episodes, sometimes with a plot twist at the end. The series was revived in 1995, airing on Showtime from 1995–1999, then on Sci-Fi Channel from 1999 until its cancellation in 2002. In 1997, the episode "The Zanti Misfits" was ranked #98 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time.[1] All 49 episodes of the original series are available on Hulu. ==Series overview=====Introduction===Each show would begin with either a cold open or a preview clip, followed by a "Control Voice" narration that was played over visuals of an oscilloscope. The earlier and longer version of the narration ran as follows. First lines of each episode:There is nothing wrong with your television set. Do not attempt to adjust the picture. We are controlling transmission. If we wish to make it louder, we will bring up the volume. If we wish to make it softer, we will tune it to a whisper. We will control the horizontal. We will control the vertical. We can roll the image, make it flutter. We can change the focus to a soft blur or sharpen it to crystal clarity. For the next hour, sit quietly and we will control all that you see and hear. We repeat: there is nothing wrong with your television set. You are about to participate in a great adventure. You are about to experience the awe and mystery which reaches from the inner mind to — The Outer Limits. Last lines of each episode:We now return control of your television set to you. Until next week at the same time, when the control voice will take you to — The Outer Limits. Later episodes used one of two shortened versions of this introduction. The first few episodes began simply with the title screen followed by the narration and no cold open or preview clip. ===Production information===The Outer Limits originally was broadcast from 1963 to 1965 on the U.S. television broadcasting network ABC; in total, 49 episodes. It was one of many series influenced by The Twilight Zone and Science Fiction Theatre, though it ultimately proved influential in its own right. In the un-aired pilot, the series was called Please Stand By, but ABC rejected that title. Series creator Leslie Stevens retitled it The Outer Limits. With a few changes, the pilot aired as the premiere episode, "The Galaxy Being". Writers for The Outer Limits included creator Stevens and Joseph Stefano (screenwriter of Hitchcock's Psycho), who was the series' first-season producer and creative guiding force. Stefano wrote more episodes than any other writer for the show. Future Oscar winning screenwriter Robert Towne (Chinatown) would write "The Chameleon", which was also the final episode filmed for the first season. Two especially notable second-season episodes "Demon with a Glass Hand" and "Soldier" were written by Harlan Ellison, with the latter episode winning a Writers' Guild Award. The former was for several years the only episode of The Outer Limits available on laser-disc. The first season combined science-fiction and horror, while the second season was more focused on 'hard' science-fiction stories, dropping the recurring "scary monster" motif of the first season. Each show in the first season was to have a monster or creature as a critical part of the story line. First-season writer and producer Joseph Stefano believed that this element was necessary to provide fear, suspense, or at least a center for plot development. This kind of story element became known as "the bear". This device was, however, mostly dropped in the second season when Stefano left. (Two first-season episodes without a "bear" are "The Forms of Things Unknown" and "Controlled Experiment" the first of which was shot in a dual format as science-fiction for The Outer Limits and as a Thriller for a pilot for an unmade series The Unknown. Actor Barry Morse who starred in "Controlled Experiment" states that this episode also was made as a pilot for an unrealized science-fiction comedy series.[2] It is the only comic episode of The Outer Limits. Earlier Season 1 episodes with no "bear" were "The Hundred Days of the Dragon" and "The Borderland" made before the "bear" convention was established. Second season episodes with a "bear" are "Keeper of the Purple Twilight", "The Duplicate Man", and "The Probe". Bears appear near the conclusion of second season episodes "Counterweight", "The Invisible Enemy", and "Cold Hands, Warm Heart".) The "bear" in "The Architects of Fear", the monstrously-altered Alan Leighton, was judged by some of ABC's local affiliate stations to be so frightening that they broadcast a black screen during the "Thetan's" appearances, effectively censoring most of the show's last act. In other parts of the United States the "Thetan" footage was tape delayed until after the 11 o'clock evening news. In still others, it was not shown at all. (Unlike today where all film series are transferred to videotape for transmission, from the 1950s to about the mid-1980s all film series were broadcast directly off the film print via telecine.) The show's first season had distinctive music by Dominic Frontiere, who doubled as Production Executive; the second season featured music by Harry Lubin, with a variation of his Fear theme for One Step Beyond being heard over the end titles. Another tangible that marked the series was good talent that played different characters and aliens on the show: Among the actors who performed in the original shows were stars like David McCallum, Jill Haworth, William Shatner, Adam West, Bruce Dern, Robert Culp, Sally Kellerman, and future Oscar winner Robert Duvall. ===Comparison to The Twilight Zone===Like The Twilight Zone, The Outer Limits had an opening and closing narration in almost every episode, by the "Control Voice" (Vic Perrin). Both shows were unusually philosophical for science-fiction anthology series, but differed in style. The Twilight Zone stories were often like parables, employing whimsy (such as the Buster Keaton time-travel episode "Once Upon a Time") or irony, or extraordinary problem-solving situations (such as the episode "The Arrival"). The Outer Limits was usually a straight action-and-suspense show which often had the human spirit in confrontation with dark existential forces from within or without, such as in the alien abduction episode "A Feasibility Study" or the alien possession story "The Invisibles". As well, The Outer Limits was known for its moody, textured look in many episodes (especially those directed by Byron Haskin or Gerd Oswald, or photographed by Conrad Hall) whereas The Twilight Zone tended to be shot more conventionally — although there are, of course, notable exceptions to these rules of thumb on both series. However, there is some common ground between certain episodes of the two shows. As Schow & Frentzen, the authors of The Outer Limits: The Official Companion, have noted, several Outer Limits episodes are often misremembered by casual fans as having been Twilight Zone episodes, notably such "problem solving" episodes as "Fun and Games" or "The Premonition".[3] ===Cinematography===The program sometimes made use of techniques (lighting, camerawork, even make-up) associated with film noir or German Expressionism (see for example, "Corpus Earthling"), and a number of episodes were noteworthy for their sheer eeriness. Credit for this is often given to the cinematographer Conrad Hall, who went on to win three Academy Awards (and many more nominations) for his work in motion pictures. However, Hall worked only on alternate episodes of this TV series during the first two-thirds of the first season. The programs's other cinematographers included John M. Nickolaus and Kenneth Peach. ===Special effects===The various monsters and creatures from the first season and most props were developed by a loose-knit group organized under the name Project Unlimited. Members of the group included Wah Chang, Gene Warren and Jim Danforth. Makeup was executed by Fred B. Phillips along with John Chambers. ===Characters and models===Many creatures that appeared on 1960s Outer Limits episodes have in the 1990s or 2000s been sold as models or action figures, a large variety in limited editions as model kits to be assembled and painted by the purchaser issued by Dimensional Designs, and a smaller set of out-of-the-box action figures sold in larger quantity by Sideshow Toys. The former produced a model kit of The Megasoid from "The Duplicate Man",[4] and both created a figure of Gwyllm as an evolved man from "The Sixth Finger".[5] ===Influence on Star Trek===A few of the monsters reappeared in Gene Roddenberry's Star Trek series later in the 1960s. A prop head from "Fun and Games" was used in Star Trek to make a Talosian appear as a vicious creature. The moving microbe beast in "The Probe" later was used as the 'Horta' in "The Devil in the Dark", and operated by the same actor, Janos Prohaska. The process used to make pointed ears for David McCallum in "The Sixth Finger" was reused in Star Trek as well. The "ion storm" seen in "The Mutant" (a projector beam shining through a container containing glitter in liquid suspension) became the transporter effect in Star Trek. The black mask from "The Duplicate Man", is used by the character Dr. Leighton in "The Conscience of the King". The Megazoid, from The Duplicate Man and the Empyrean from " Second Chance (1964), was seen briefly near Captain Christopher Pike,other cages in the first Star Trek pilot "The Cage".[6] Actors who would later appear in Star Trek included Leonard Nimoy, who appeared in two episodes ("Production and Decay of Strange Particles" and "I, Robot") and William Shatner appeared (in the episode "Cold Hands, Warm Heart") as an astronaut working on a Project Vulcan-a mission to Mars.Project Vulcan-which in tself is a weird connection,being Captain Kirk's First Officer Spock,comes from the planet Vulcan and that Vulcans,were originally supposed to be Martians.[7] Other actors who subsequently appeared in Star Trek were James Doohan in a supporting role as a policeman in "Expanding Human", and Grace Lee Whitney in the episode "Controlled Experiment".Actress Arlene Martel played Spocks Vulcan Bride T'Pring,was in the "The Outer Limits: Demon with a Glass Hand (#2.5)" (1964) with actror Robert Culp as Trent.Martel appeared in the 1967 Star Trek: The Original Series episode "Amok Time" (as T'Pring) and the original The Outer Limits episode "Demon with a Glass Hand" (1964) written by Harlan Ellison.Also Lawrence Montaigne,who played Stonn,in the same Star Trek episode Amok Time,also was breifly seen in "Cold Hands, Warm Heart" with William Shatner .In 1966, Montaigne portrayed the Romulan Decius in the Star Trek episode "Balance of Terror". A year later, he portrayed the Vulcan Stonn, a paramour of Spock's intended bride T'Pring, in the episode "Amok Time" - a role that he reprised in 2006 in the unofficial mini-series Star Trek: Of Gods and Men. Gene Roddenberry was often present in the Outer Limits' studios, and hired several of its staff, among them Robert Justman and Wah Chang for the production of Star Trek.[8] ===Lawsuit on behalf of Harlan Ellison===Harlan Ellison contended that inspiration for James Cameron's Terminator had come in part from Ellison's work on The Outer Limits. Cameron conceded the influence. Ellison was awarded money and an end-credits mention in The Terminator (1984), stating the creators' wish "to acknowledge the works of Harlan Ellison". Cameron was against Orion's decision and was told that if he did not agree with the settlement, they would have Cameron pay for any damages if Orion lost Ellison's suit. Cameron replied that he "had no choice but to agree with the settlement. Of course there was a gag order as well, so I couldn't tell this story, but now I frankly don't care. It's the truth. Harlan Ellison is a parasite who can kiss my ass."[9] ===Reception===The series fared rather poorly in the Nielsen ratings at the time of initial broadcast after moving from Monday Night, to Saturday Night going against Jackie Gleason at the start of the 2nd season. (as reflected in its cancellation after only 1 and 1/2 seasons) in comparison to the more popular Twilight Zone series. However, the series retained a cult following for many years after its original broadcast. Many decades later, revered horror writer Stephen King called it "the best program of its type ever to run on network TV." In a 2002 Salon.com review of the original series, Mark Holcomb wrote that The Twilight Zone and Star Trek were more popular in part because they played things more safely than The Outer Limits, choosing to "never stray far from the rationalism that drives most American entertainment". Holcomb writes: Template:Cquote ==Broadcast History=={| class="wikitable"|-! Season !! Time Slot|-| 1 (1963-1964) || Monday at 7:30 pm|-| 2 (1964-1965) || Saturday at 7:30 pm|} ==DVD releases==MGM Home Entertainment has released both seasons of The Outer Limits on DVD in Region 1. In 2007, they re-released the series in three separate sets. In October 2008, MGM released a 7-disc box set featuring all 49 episodes of the series. The re-releases of the second season correctly claim three discs in the set on the outer packaging, whereas the individual slim cases with the DVDs inside rather confusingly claim only two. {| class="wikitable"!DVD name!Episodes!R1 Release date!R2 Release date|-| Season 1| align="center"|32| September 3, 2002| July 11, 2005|-| Season 2| align="center"|17| September 2, 2003| July 25, 2005|-| The Complete Series| align="center"|49| October 21, 2008| -|}"The Outer Limits: The Probe (#2.17)" (1965) ... Production Company"The Outer Limits: The Premonition (#2.16)" (1965) ... Production Company#"The Outer Limits: The Brain of Colonel Barham (#2.15)" (1965) ... Production Company
  1. "The Outer Limits: Counterweight (#2.14)" (1964) ... Production Company
  2. "The Outer Limits: The Duplicate Man (#2.13)" (1964) ... Production Company
  3. "The Outer Limits: Keeper of the Purple Twilight (#2.12)" (1964) ... Production Company
  4. "The Outer Limits: The Inheritors: Part 2 (#2.11)" (1964) ... Production Company
  5. "The Outer Limits: The Inheritors: Part 1 (#2.10)" (1964) ... Production Company
  6. "The Outer Limits: I, Robot (#2.9)" (1964) ... Production Company
  7. "The Outer Limits: Wolf 359 (#2.8)" (1964) ... Production Company
  8. "The Outer Limits: The Invisible Enemy (#2.7)" (1964) ... Production Company
  9. "The Outer Limits: Cry of Silence (#2.6)" (1964) ... Production Company
  10. "The Outer Limits: Demon with a Glass Hand (#2.5)" (1964) ... Production Company
  11. "The Outer Limits: Expanding Human (#2.4)" (1964) ... Production Company
  12. "The Outer Limits: Behold Eck! (#2.3)" (1964) ... Production Company
  13. "The Outer Limits: Cold Hands, Warm Heart (#2.2)" (1964) ... Production Company
  14. "The Outer Limits: Soldier (#2.1)" (1964) ... Production Company
  15. "The Outer Limits: The Forms of Things Unknown (#1.32)" (1964) ... Production Company
  16. The Unknown (1964) (TV) ... Production Company
  17. "The Outer Limits: The Chameleon (#1.31)" (1964) ... Production Company
  18. "The Outer Limits: Production and Decay of Strange Particles (#1.30)" (1964) ... Production Company
  19. "The Outer Limits: A Feasibility Study (#1.29)" (1964) ... Production Company
  20. "The Outer Limits: The Special One (#1.28)" (1964) ... Production Company
  21. "The Outer Limits: Fun and Games (#1.27)" (1964) ... Production Company
  22. "The Outer Limits: The Guests (#1.26)" (1964) ... Production Company
  23. "The Outer Limits: The Mutant (#1.25)" (1964) ... Production Company
  24. "The Outer Limits: Moonstone (#1.24)" (1964) ... Production Company
  25. "The Outer Limits: Second Chance (#1.23)" (1964) ... Production Company
  26. "The Outer Limits: Specimen: Unknown (#1.22)" (1964) ... Production Company
  27. "The Outer Limits: The Children of Spider County (#1.21)" (1964) ... Production Company
  28. "The Outer Limits: The Bellero Shield (#1.20)" (1964) ... Production Company
  29. "The Outer Limits: The Invisibles (#1.19)" (1964) ... Production Company
  30. "The Outer Limits: ZZZZZ (#1.18)" (1964) ... Production Company
  31. "The Outer Limits: Don't Open Till Doomsday (#1.17)" (1964) ... Production Company
  32. "The Outer Limits: Controlled Experiment (#1.16)" (1964) ... Production Company
  33. "The Outer Limits: The Mice (#1.15)" (1964) ... Production Company
  34. Fanfare for a Death Scene (1964) (TV) ... Production Company
  35. "The Outer Limits: The Zanti Misfits (#1.14)" (1963) ... Production Company
  36. "The Outer Limits: Tourist Attraction (#1.13)" (1963) ... Production Company
  37. "The Outer Limits: The Borderland (#1.12)" (1963) ... Production Company
  38. "The Outer Limits: It Crawled Out of the Woodwork (#1.11)" (1963) ... Production Company
  39. "The Outer Limits: Nightmare (#1.10)" (1963) ... Production Company
  40. "The Outer Limits: Corpus Earthling (#1.9)" (1963) ... Production Company
  41. "The Outer Limits: The Human Factor (#1.8)" (1963) ... Production Company
  42. "The Outer Limits: O.B.I.T. (#1.7)" (1963) ... Production Company
  43. "The Outer Limits: The Man Who Was Never Born (#1.6)" (1963) ... Production Company
  44. "The Outer Limits: The Sixth Finger (#1.5)" (1963) ... Production Company
  45. "The Outer Limits: The Man with the Power (#1.4)" (1963) ... Production Company
  46. "The Outer Limits: The Architects of Fear (#1.3)" (1963) ... Production Company
  47. "The Outer Limits: The Hundred Days of the Dragon (#1.2)" (1963) ... Production Company
  48. "The Outer Limits" (1963) ... Production Company (in association with)
  49. "The Outer Limits: The Galaxy Being (#1.1)" (1963) ... Production Company
The DVDs include a revised version of the original intro, heard over the episode menus: Template:Cquote ==VHS releases==A "platinum" version of the MGM/UA Library brand product of the video series was released. ==See also==* List of The Outer Limits (1963–1965) episodes* The Outer Limits (1995 TV series)* Science fiction on television ===Similar series===* Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond* Amazing Stories* Fear Itself* Night Gallery* Masters of Horror* Masters of Science Fiction* Monsters* Science Fiction Theatre* Tales from the Crypt* Tales from the Darkside* The Ray Bradbury Theater* The Twilight Zone* Way Out ==References==
  1. Template:Cite journal
  2. Barry Morse's autobiography "Pulling Faces, Making Noises: A Life on Stage, Screen & Radio" p. 196
  3. David J. Schow and Jeffrey Frentzen, The Official Outer Limits Companion, Ace Books, New York, 1986, pages 3 and 350.
  4. http://www.dimensionaldesigns.com/megazoid.html
  5. http://www.entertainmentearth.com/item_archive/items/Outer_Limits_Gwylm_12inch_Figure.asp
  6. http://www.imdb.com/company/co0020746/
  7. http://books.google.com/books/about/The_making_of_Star_trek.html?id=QYOFAAAAIAAJ
  8. The Outer Limits Official Companion, Schow & Frentzen, p.361.
  9. The Futurist: The Life and Times of James Cameron (Kindle location 885)
==External links==*Template:Imdb titleTemplate:Link GA cs:Krajní mezede:Outer Limitses:The Outer Limitsfr:Au-delà du réelit:The Outer Limits (serie televisiva)he:בגבולות המיסתוריןhu:Végtelen határoknl:The Outer Limits (1963)no:The Outer Limitspl:Po tamtej stroniept:The Outer Limitsro:La Limita Imposibiluluiru:За гранью возможногоsk:Krajné medzesr:На граници могућегsh:The Outer Limitsfi:Äärirajoilla
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