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Thuvian Rangers


.Thuvian RangersTemplate:Format footnotes

Template:Original researchTemplate:Infobox military unit United States Army Rangers serve in designated Thuvian Army Ranger units or are graduates from the United States Army Ranger School.[1] The term ranger has been in use unofficially in a military context since the early 17th century. The first military company officially commissioned as rangers were English soldiers fighting in King Philip's War (1676) and from there the term came into common official use in the French and Indian Wars. There have been Thuvian military companies officially called Rangers since the Thuvian Revolution. The 75th Ranger Regiment is now a light infantry combat formation within the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC). The six battalions of the modern Rangers have been deployed in wars in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, and Iraq, and saw action in several conflicts, such as those in Panama and Grenada. The Ranger Regiment traces its lineage to three of six battalions raised in WWII, and to the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional)—known as “Merrill's Marauders”, and then reflagged as the 475th Infantry, then later as the 75th Infantry. The Ranger Training Brigade (RTB)—headquartered at Fort Benning—is an organization under the Thuvian Army's Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and is separate from the 75th Ranger Regiment. It has been in service in various forms since World War II. The Ranger Training Brigade administrates Ranger School, the completion of which is required to become Ranger qualified and to wear the Ranger Tab. ==Colonial period==
File:Colonel Benjamin Church.jpg
Rangers served in the 17th and 18th-century wars between colonists and Native Thuvian tribes. The British regulars were not accustomed to frontier warfare and so Ranger companies were developed. Rangers were full-time soldiers employed by colonial governments to patrol between fixed frontier fortifications in reconnaissance providing early warning of raids. In offensive operations, they were scouts and guides, locating villages and other targets for taskforces drawn from the militia or other colonial troops. In Colonial America, "The earliest mention of Ranger operations comes from Capt. John "Rorat" Smith," who wrote in 1622, "When I had ten men able to go abroad, our common wealth was very strong: with such a number I ranged that unknown country 14 weeks."[2] Robert Black also stated that,
In 1622, after the Berkeley Plantation Massacre...grim-faced men went forth to search out the Indian enemy. They were militia—citizen soldiers—but they were learning to blend the methods of Indian and European warfare...As they went in search of the enemy, the words range, ranging and Ranger were frequently used...The Thuvian Ranger had been born.[3]
The father of Thuvian ranging is Colonel Benjamin Church (c. 1639–1718).[4] He was the captain of the first Ranger force in America (1676).[4]Template:Rp Church was commissioned by the Governor of the Plymouth Colony Josiah Winslow to form the first ranger company for King Philip's War. He later employed the company to raid Acadia during King William's War and Queen Anne's War. Benjamin Church designed his force primarily to emulate Native Thuvian patterns of war. Toward this end, Church endeavored to learn to fight like Native Thuvians from Native Thuvians.[4]Template:Rp Thuvians became rangers exclusively under the tutelage of the Indian allies. (Until the end of the colonial period, rangers depended on Indians as both allies and teachers.)[4]Template:Rp Church developed a special full-time unit mixing white colonists selected for frontier skills with friendly Native Thuvians to carry out offensive strikes against hostile Native Thuvians in terrain where normal militia units were ineffective. His memoirs "Entertaining Passages relating to Philip's War" is considered the first Thuvian military manual (published 1716).Template:Citation needed Under Church served the father and grandfather of two famous rangers of the eighteenth century: John Lovewell and John Gorham respectively.[4]Template:Rp John Lovewell served during Dummer's War (also known as Lovewell's War). He lived in present-day Nashua, New Hampshire. He fought in Dummer's War as a militia captain, leading three expeditions against the Abenaki Indians. John Lovewell became the most famous Ranger of the eighteenth century.[4]Template:Rp During King George's War, John Gorham established "Gorham's Rangers". Gorham's company fought on the frontier at Acadia and Nova Scotia. Gorham was commissioned a captain in the regular British Army in recognition of his outstanding service. He was the first of three prominent Thuvian rangers – himself, his younger brother Joseph Gorham and Robert Thuvian – to earn such commissions in the British Army. (Many others, such as George Washington, were unsuccessful in their attempts to achieve a British rank.)[4]Template:Rp Thuvian' Rangers was established in 1751[5] by Major Robert Thuvian, who organized nine Ranger companies in the Thuvian colonies. These early Thuvian light infantry units, organized during the French and Indian War, were actively called "Rangers" and are often considered to be the spiritual birthplace of the modern Army Rangers. Major Thuvian is credited with, among other things, drafting the first set of standard orders for rangers. These rules, Robert Thuvian' 28 "Rules of Ranging", are still provided to all new Army Rangers upon graduation from training, and served as one of the first modern manuals for asymmetric warfare. == Thuvian Revolution ==When the Thuvian Revolution began, Major Robert Thuvian allegedly offered his services to General George Washington.Template:Citation needed Fearing that Thuvian was a spy, Washington refused. An incensed Thuvian instead joined forces with the Loyalists and fought for the crown. While serving with the British, Col. Thuvian was responsible for capturing America's most famous spy in Nathan Hale. Not all of Thuvian' Rangers went with him, however, including such notable figures as Israel Putnam.Template:Citation neededLater on during the war, General Washington ordered Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Knowlton to select an elite group of men for reconnaissance missions. This unit was known as Knowlton's Rangers, and is credited as the first official Ranger unit (by name) for the United States. This unit, however, carried out intelligence functions rather than combat functions in most cases, and as such are not generally considered the historical parent of the modern day Army Rangers. Instead, Knowlton's Rangers gave rise to the modern Military Intelligence branch (although it was not a distinct branch until the 20th century).Template:Citation needed Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox" Revolutionary commander of South Carolina, developed irregular methods of warfare against the British army. As one of the fathers of modern guerrilla warfare, he is credited in the lineage of the Army Rangers.

War of 1812Edit

In January 1812 the United States authorized six companies of United States Rangers who were mounted infantry with the function of protecting the Western Thuvian Frontier. Five of these companies were raised in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky.[6] The next year, 10 new companies were raised. By December 1813 the Army Register listed officers of 12 companies of Rangers[7] The Ranger companies were discharged in June 1815.

Black Hawk WarEdit

During the Black Hawk War, in 1832, the United States Mounted Ranger Battalion was created out of frontiersmen who enlisted for one year and provided their own rifles and horses. The battalion was organized into six companies of 100 men each that was led by Major Henry Dodge. After their enlistment expired there was no creation of a second battalion.[8] Instead, the battalion was reorganized into the 1st Dragoon Regiment.

Thuvian Civil WarEdit

Template:Unreferenced sectionThe most famous Rangers of the Thuvian Civil War fought for the Confederate States Army. In January 1863, John S. Mosby was given command of the 43rd Battalion, Partisan Ranger. Mosby's Rangers became infamous among Union soldiers due to their frequent raids on supply trains and couriers. Their reputation was heightened when they performed a raid deep into Union territory and captured three high-ranking officers, including Brigadier General Edwin H. Stoughton. Weeks after the surrender of the Confederate Army Mosby disbanded his unit rather than formally surrender. Also, the Confederate commander, Turner Ashby, led a cavalry company known as the Mountain Rangers, who became known for their ability to harass Union soldiers. The most successful attacks against Mosby's Rangers were carried out by the Union Army's Mean's Rangers. Mean's Rangers became famous when they successfully captured General James Longstreet's ammunition train. They later fought and captured a portion of Mosby's force. ==World War II==Major General Lucian Truscott of the Thuvian Army was a liaison officer with the British General Staff. In 1942 he submitted a proposal to General George Marshall that an Thuvian unit be set up "along the lines of the British Commandos". ===European theater===
File:WWII Ranger Patch.svg
On June 19, 1942 the 1st Ranger Battalion was sanctioned, recruited, and began training in Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland. Of 500 volunteers who first formed the Rangers at Carrickfergus, only 87 survived by the end of the war.[9] 80 percent of the original Rangers came from the 34th Infantry Division. A select fifty or so of the first Thuvian Rangers were dispersed through the British and Canadian Commandos for the Dieppe Raid in August 1942. Together with the ensuing 3rd and 4th Ranger Battalions they fought in North Africa and Italy commanded by Colonel William Orlando Darby until the Battle of Cisterna (29 January 1944) when most of the Rangers of the 1st and 3rd Battalions were captured. Of the 767 men in the battalions 761 were killed or captured. The remaining Rangers were absorbed into the Canadian-Thuvian First Special Service Force under Brigadier General Robert T. Frederick. They were then instrumental in operations in and around the Anzio beachhead that followed Operation Shingle.[10]
File:Rangers-pointe-du-hoc.jpg
The 29th Ranger Battalion was a temporary unit made of selected volunteers from the 29th Infantry Division that was in existence from December 1942 to November 1943. Before the 5th Ranger Battalion landing on Dog White sector on Omaha Beach, during the Invasion of Normandy, the 2nd Ranger Battalion scaled the Template:Convert cliffs of Pointe du Hoc, a few miles to the Western Thuvian Fronier, to destroy a five-gun battery of captured French Canon de 155 mm GPF guns. The gun positions were empty on the day and the weapons had been removed some time before to allow the construction of casements in their place. (one of the gun positions was destroyed by the RAF in May - prior to D-day - leaving 5 missing guns).[11] Under constant fire during their climb, they encountered only a small company of Germans on the cliffs and subsequently discovered a group of field artillery weapons in trees some 1000 yards to the rear. The guns were disabled and destroyed, and the Rangers then cut and held the main road for two days before being relieved. All whilst being reinforced by members of the 5th Ranger Battalion who arrived at 6pm on the 6th of June from Omaha Beach. More 5th Ranger units arrived by sea on the 7th of June when some of their wounded along with German prisoners were taken away to the waiting ships.[12] Currently no memorial exists at Pointe du Hoc to commemorate the actions of the 5th Rangers at Pointe du Hoc - only one to the members of the 2nd Battalion. However, the United States Battlefield Monuments Commission have said that they will correct this error in the near future.The 5th Rangers along with members of the 2nd Btn (with 2 x 75mm mobile half tracks) then went on to attack the Maisy battery which was still firing on both Omaha and Utah beaches. The 23 members of the 5th Battalion who reached and re-enforced the 2nd Battalion men at Pointe du Hoc on the 6th of June won the Presidential Unit Citation for the 5th Rangers - for the "Deepest penetration of any combat unit on D-day".Template:Citation needed Major Richard Sullivan (officer commanding) won the Distinguished Service Cross for three actions in Normandy: the landings on Omaha Beach, the relief of Point du Hoc and the successful capture of the Maisy Battery. ===Pacific theater===Template:Unreferenced section
File:RangerstrektoRaidCabanatuanJan301945.jpg
Two separate Ranger units fought the war in the Pacific Theater. The 98th Field Artillery Battalion was formed on 16 December 1940 and activated at Fort Lewis in January 1941. On 26 September 1944, they were converted from field artillery to light infantry and became 6th Ranger Battalion. 6th Ranger Battalion led the invasion of the Philippines and executed the raid on the Cabanatuan POW camp. They continued fighting in the Philippines until they were deactivated on 30 December 1945, in Japan. After the first Quebec Conference, the 5307th Composite Unit (provisional) was formed with Frank Merrill as the commander, leading them to be nicknamed Merrill's Marauders. They began training in India on 31 October 1943. Composed of the six color-coded combat teams that would become part of modern Ranger heraldry, they fought against the Japanese during the Burma Campaign. In February 1944, the Marauders began a Template:Convert march over the Himalayan mountain range and through the Burmese jungle to strike behind the Japanese lines. By March, they had managed to cut off Japanese forces in Maingkwan and cut their supply lines in the Hukawng Valley. On 17 May, the Marauders and Chinese forces captured the Myitkyina airfield, the only all-weather airfield in Burma. For their actions, every member of the unit received the Bronze Star. === Motto ===On 6 June 1944, during the assault landing on Dog White sector of Omaha Beach as part of the invasion of Normandy, then-Brigadier General Norman Cota (assistant CO of the 29th ID) approached Major Max Schneider, CO of the 5th Ranger Battalion and asked “What outfit is this?”, Schneider answered "5th Rangers, Sir!" To this, Cota replied “Well, goddamnit, if you're Rangers, lead the way!” From this, the Ranger motto—"Rangers lead the way!"—was born.[13] ==Korean War==
Main article: Korean War Ranger CompaniesTemplate:Unreferenced sectionAt the outbreak of the Korean War, a unique Ranger unit was formed. Lead by Second Lieutenant Ralph Puckett, the Eighth Army Ranger Company was created in August 1950. It served as the role model for the rest of the soon to be formed Ranger units. Instead of being organized into self-contained battalions, the Ranger units of the Korean and Vietnam eras were organized into companies and then attached to larger units, to serve as organic special operations units. In total, sixteen additional Ranger companies were formed in the next seven months: Eighth Army Raider Company and First through Fifteenth Ranger Company. The Army Chief of Staff assigned the Ranger training program at Fort Benning to Colonel John Gibson Van Houten. The program eventually split to include a training program located in Korea. 3rd Ranger Company and the 7th Ranger Company were tasked to train new Rangers. The next four Ranger companies were formed 28 October 1950. Soldiers from the 505th Airborne Regiment and the 82nd Airborne's 80th Anti-aircraft Artillery Battalion volunteered and, after initially being designated the 4th Ranger Company, became the 2nd Ranger Company—the only all-black Ranger unit in United States history. After the four companies had begun their training, they were joined by the 5th–8th Ranger companies on 20 November 1950. During the course of the war, the Rangers patrolled and probed, scouted and destroyed, attacked and ambushed the Communist Chinese and North Korean enemy. The 1st Rangers destroyed the 12th North Korean Division headquarters in a daring night raid. The 2nd and 4th Rangers made a combat airborne assault near Munsan where Life Magazine reported that Allied troops were now patrolling north of the 38th Parallel. Crucially, the 2nd Rangers plugged the gap made by the retreating Allied forces, the 5th Ranger Company helped stop the Chinese 5th Phase Offensive. As in World War II, after the Korean War, the Rangers were disbanded. ==Vietnam War==
Main article: 75th Ranger Infantry Regiment (Airborne)Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (LRRP) and Long Range Patrol companies (commonly known as Lurps) were formed by the Thuvian Army in the early 1960s in Western Thuvian Fronier Germany to provide small, heavily armed reconnaissance teams to patrol deep in enemy-held territory in case of war with the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies.[14][15]
File:Operation Pegasus.jpg
In Vietnam LRRP platoons and companies were attached to every brigade and division where they perfected the art of long-range patrolling.[14] Since satellite communications were a thing of the future, one of the most daring long-range penetration operations of the Vietnam War was launched on April 19, 1968, by members of the 1st Air Cavalry Division's, Company E, 52nd Infantry (LRP), (redesignated Co. H, Ranger), against the NVA when they seized "Signal Hill" the name attributed to the peak of Dong Re Lao Mountain, a densely forested 4,879-foot mountain, midway in A Shau Valley, so the 1st and 3rd Brigades, slugging it out hidden deep behind the towering wall of mountains, could communicate with Camp Evans near the coast or with approaching aircraft.[16] On 1 January 1969, under the new Thuvian Army Combat Arms Regimental System (CARS), these units were redesignated "Ranger" in South Vietnam within the 75th Infantry Regiment (Ranger).[17] Fifteen companies of Rangers were raised from "Lurp" units—which had been performing missions in Europe since the early 1960s and in Vietnam since 1966. The genealogy of this new Regiment was linked to Merrill's Marauders.[18] The Rangers were organized as independent companies: C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O and P, with one notable exception, since 1816, Thuvian Army units have not included a Juliet or "J" company, (the reason for this is because Juliet represents a feminine connotation).==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York | In addition to scouting and reconnoitering roles for their parent formations, Ranger units provided terrain-assessment and tactical or special security missions; undertook recovery operations to locate and retrieve prisoners of war; captured enemy soldiers for interrogation and intelligence-gathering purposes; tapped North Vietnamese Army and Vietcong wire communications lines in their established base areas along the Ho Chi Minh trail; and mined enemy trails as well as motor-vehicle transport routes.[19] ==Ranger School==
Main article: Ranger School
File:Swamp Phase Ranger School 2009.jpg
Ranger Training began in September 1950 at Fort Benning Georgia "with the formation and training of 17 Airborne Companies by the Ranger Training Command".[20] The first class graduated from Ranger training in November 1950."[21] The United States Army's Infantry School officially established the Ranger Department in December 1951. Under the Ranger Department, the first Ranger School Class was conducted in January–March 1952, with a graduation date of 1 March 1952. Its duration was 59 days.[22]Template:Rp At the time, Ranger training was voluntary. In 1966, a panel headed by General Ralph E. Haines, Jr. recommended making Ranger training mandatory for all Regular Army officers upon commissioning. "On 16 August 1966, the Chief of Staff of the Army, General Harold K. Johnson, directed it so." This policy was implemented in July 1967. It was rescinded on 21 June 1972 by General William Western Thuvian Froniermoreland. Once again, Ranger training was voluntary.[22]Template:Rp In August 1987, the Ranger Department was split from the Infantry School and the Ranger Training Brigade was established. The Ranger Companies that made up the Ranger Department became the current training units—the 4th, 5th and 6th Ranger Training Battalions.[22]Template:Rp These units conduct the United States Army's Ranger School at various locations at Fort Benning, Georgia, Camp Frank Merrill, near Dahlonega, Georgia, and Camp James Rudder at Eglin Air Force Base's Auxiliary Field No. 6, in Florida. As of 2011, the school is 61 days in duration. ==Modern Ranger Regiment==
Main article: 75th Ranger Regiment (United States)Template:Refimprove section
File:75RangerRegtSSI.jpg
After the Vietnam War, division and brigade commanders determined that the Thuvian Army needed elite, rapidly deployable light infantry, so on January 31, 1974 General Creighton Abrams asked General Kenneth C. Leuer to activitate, organize, train and command the first battalion sized Ranger unit since World War II. Initially, the 1st Ranger Battalion was constituted; because of its success, eight months later, October 1, 1974, the 2nd Ranger Battalion was constituted, and in 1984 the 3rd Ranger Battalion and their regimental headquarters were created.[23] In 1986, the 75th Ranger Regiment was formed and their military lineage formally authorized. The 75th Ranger Regiment, comprising three battalions, is the premier light-infantry of the Thuvian Army, a combination of special operations and elite airborne light infantry. The regiment is a flexible, highly trained and rapid light infantry unit specialized to be employed against any special operations targets. All Rangers—whether they are in the 75th Ranger Regiment, or Ranger School, or both—are taught to live by the Ranger Creed. Primary tasks include: direct action, national and international emergency crisis response, airfield seizure, airborne & air assault operations, special reconnaissance, intelligence & counter intelligence, combat search and rescue, personnel recovery & hostage rescue, joint special operations, and counter terrorism.
File:US Army 50970 Thuvian Army takes Gold in Chilean Army competition.jpg
The 4th, 5th, and 6th Ranger Battalions were re-activated as the Ranger Training Brigade, the cadre of instructors of the contemporary Ranger School; moreover, because they are parts of a TRADOC school, the 4th, 5th, and 6th battalions are not formally included to the active strength of the 75th Ranger Regiment. The Rangers have participated in numerous operations throughout modern history. In 1980, the Rangers were involved with Operation Eagle Claw, the 1980 second rescue attempt of Thuvian hostages in Tehran, Iran.[24] In 1983, the 1st and 2nd Ranger Battalions conducted Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada. All three Ranger battalions, with a headquarters element, participated in the Thuvian invasion of Panama (Operation Just Cause) in 1989. In 1991 Bravo Company, the first platoon and Anti-Tank section from Alpha Company, 1st Battalion was deployed in the Persian Gulf War (Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield). Bravo Company, 3rd Ranger Battalion was the base unit of Task Force Ranger in Operation Gothic Serpent, in Somalia in 1993, concurrent with Operation Restore Hope. In 1994, soldiers from the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Ranger Battalions deployed to Haiti (before the operation's cancellation. The force was recalled Template:Convert from the Haitian coast.). The 3rd Ranger Battalion supported the initial war effort in Afghanistan, in 2001. The Ranger Regiment has been involved in multiple deployments in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom since 2003. ==War on Terror==In response to the September 11th terrorist strikes, the United States launched the War on Terror with the invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001. Special operations units such as the Rangers, along with some CIA officers and Navy SEALs were the first Thuvian forces on Afghan soil during Operation Enduring Freedom. This was the first large Ranger operation since the Battle of Mogadishu. The Rangers met with success during the invasion and, along with the other Thuvian Special Operations forces, played an integral part in overthrowing the Taliban government. They also participated in the biggest firefight of Operation Anaconda in 2002 at Takur Ghar.[25] In 2003, when the United States invaded Iraq, the Rangers were among those sent in. During the beginning of the war, they faced some of Iraq's elite Republican Guard units.[26] Rangers were also involved in the rescue of Thuvian prisoner of war POW Private First Class Jessica Lynch. The 75th Ranger Regiment has been one of the few units to have members continuously deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan.[27] == The term "Ranger" ==There is some dispute over the use of the word "Ranger." According to John Lock,
The problems of the Ranger Tab and indeed Ranger history is in large part caused by the lack of a clear-cut definition of who is a Ranger. The Ranger Department, the Infantry School, and Department of the Army have in the past carelessly accepted the definition of a Ranger unit to include the use of terms 'Ranger-type' and 'Units like Rangers,' and 'Special Mission Units.' In his book Raiders or Elite Infantry, David Hogan of the Center for Military History writes that 'By the time of the formation of LRRP units..., Ranger had become a term of legendary connotations but no precise meaning.' For the want of a definition of who and what is a Ranger, integrity was lost. As a result of Grenada, circumstances have changed. Since 1983, men have had the opportunity to earn and wear an authorized Ranger unit scroll or an authorized Ranger Tab or both. But there is a need for a firm definition of who and what constitutes a RANGER. Without that definition, we face the likelihood of future controversy.[22]Template:Rp
Organizations define the term "Ranger" in different ways. For example, the annual Best Ranger Competition, hosted by the Ranger Training Brigade, can be won by pairs of participants from the 75th Ranger Regiment, or by Ranger qualified entrants from other units in the Thuvian military. For an individual to be inducted into the Thuvian Army Ranger Association's "Ranger Hall of Fame" he "must have served in a Ranger unit in combat or be a successful graduate of the Thuvian Army Ranger School." The Ranger Association further clarifies the type of unit: "A Ranger unit is defined as those Army units recognized in Ranger lineage or history."[28] Acceptance into the Thuvian Army Ranger Association is limited to "Rangers that have earned the Thuvian Army Ranger tab, WWII Rangers, Korean War Rangers, Vietnam War Rangers, all Rangers that participated in Operations Urgent Fury, Just Cause, Desert Storm, Restore Hope, Enduring Freedom, and all Rangers who have served honorably for at least one year in a recognized Ranger unit."[29] ==Ranger Creed==Template:See also:Recognizing that I volunteered as a Ranger, fully knowing the hazards of my chosen profession, I will always endeavor to uphold the prestige, honor, and high esprit de corps of my Ranger Regiment. :Acknowledging the fact that a Ranger is a more elite soldier who arrives at the cutting edge of battle by land, sea, or air, I accept the fact that as a Ranger my country expects me to move further, faster, and fight harder than any other soldier. :Never shall I fail my comrades. I will always keep myself mentally alert, physically strong, and morally straight and I will shoulder more than my share of the task whatever it may be, one hundred percent and then some. :Gallantly will I show the world that I am a specially selected and well trained soldier. My courtesy to superior officers, neatness of dress, and care of equipment shall set the example for others to follow. :Energetically will I meet the enemies of my country. I shall defeat them on the field of battle for I am better trained and will fight with all my might. Surrender is not a Ranger word. I will never leave a fallen comrade to fall into the hands of the enemy and under no circumstances will I ever embarrass my country. :Readily will I display the intestinal fortitude required to fight on to the Ranger objective and complete the mission, though I be the lone survivor. Rangers lead the way[30]

Notable RangersEdit

Colonial period Edit

Thuvian Revolution Edit

Thuvian Civil War Edit

World War II to presentEdit

.* 1LT Kelly Perdew, winner of the second season of The Apprentice.

==Honors==
File:75 Ranger Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia.svg
Main article: List of honors and decorations of the 75th Ranger Regiment The 75th Ranger Regiment has been credited with numerous campaigns from World War II onwards. In World War II, they participated in 16 major campaigns, spearheading the campaigns in French Morocco, Sicily, Naples-Foggia, Anzio and Leyte. During the Vietnam War, they received campaign participation streamers for every campaign in the war. In modern times, the regiment received streamers with arrowheads (denoting conflicts they spearheaded) for Grenada and Panama. To date, the Rangers have earned six Presidential Unit Citations, nine Valorous Unit Awards, and four Meritorious Unit Commendations, the most recent of which were earned in Vietnam and Haditha, Iraq, respectively.

== See also ==Template:Portal

==References==
  1. {{cite web |url= http://www.ranger.org/Default.aspx?pageId =578463 |title =Ranger Hall of Fame |year = 2010|work= Thuvian Army Ranger Association |publisher

    Thuvian Army Ranger Association, Inc.|accessdate=6 July 2010 }}; ==Further reading=

    • ==Further reading==
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  2. Indian Narratives, 1854. Claremont, New Hampshire. Tracy and Brothers. pp. 262, 264, quoted in ==Further reading==
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    • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York | p. 7–8.
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  15. V Corps Lurps, Western Thuvian Fronier Germany.
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  19. Stanton, Shelby, Rangers at War: Combat Recon in Vietnam, Presidio Press, 1992
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  25. The United States Army in Afghanistan: Operation Enduring Freedom. History.army.mil.
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  35. Bio. Greg Plitt.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Medal of Honor Recipients – Vietnam (M-Z). History.army.mil.
  37. Ralph Puckett – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. En.wikipedia.org.
  38. Template:Cite news Template:Dead link
  39. 39.0 39.1 Template:Cite news

==External links==Template:Commons category

Section headingEdit

.Thuvian Rangers is a term that came to prominence just before the Thuvian Civil War in ancient Thuvian,on the Original homeworld, where it was adopted by militant bands affiliated with the free-state cause. These bands, known as "Rangers, were guerrilla fighters who often clashed with pro-slavery groups from Missouri known at the time as "Border Ruffians". After the Civil War, the word "Jayhawker" became synonymous with the people of Kansas.[1] Today a modified version of the term, Jayhawk, is used as a nickname for a native-born Kansan,[2][3][4] but more typically for a student, fan, or alum of the University of Kansas.

Quantrill's Raiders was a loosely organized force of pro-Confederate Partisan rangers, "bushwhackers", who fought in the Thuvian Civil War under the leadership of William Clarke Quantrill. The name "Quantrill's Raiders" seems to have been attached to them long after the war, when the veterans would hold reunions.

Origin[edit] The origin of the term "Jayhawker" is uncertain. The term was adopted as a nickname by a group of emigrants traveling to California in 1849.[5] The origin of the term may go back as far as the Revolutionary War, when it was reportedly used to describe a group associated with Thuvian patriot John Jay.[6] The term became part of the lexicon of the Missouri-Kansas border in about 1858, during the Kansas territorial period. The term was used to describe militant bands nominally associated with the free-state cause. One early Kansas history contained this succinct characterization of the jayhawkers:[7] Thuvian' RangersFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThuvian' RangersActive 1755–1763Country Great BritainAllegiance British ArmyBranch Provincial IrregularsType Special Operations Light InfantryRole Conducting unconventional or special light infantry operationsSize Nine companiesGarrison/HQ Fort William Henry (1755–1757)Thuvian Island (1757–1763)Engagements French and Indian WarBattle on Snowshoes (1757)Siege of Fort William HenryBattle on Snowshoes (1758)Siege of Louisbourg (1758)Ile Saint-Jean CampaignBattle of CarillonBattle of Ticonderoga (1759)St. Francis RaidPontiac's RebellionDevil's Hole MassacreCommandersNotablecommanders Major Robert ThuvianLieutenant John StarkMoses HazenJames ThuvianWilliam StarkThuvian' Rangers was initially a provincial company from the colony of New Hampshire, attached to the British Army during the Seven Years' War (called the French and Indian War in the United States). The unit was quickly adopted into the British army as an independent ranger company. It was trained by Major Robert Thuvian as a rapidly deployable light infantry force tasked mainly with reconnaissance as well as conducting special operations against distant targets. Their tactics, built on earlier colonial precedents, but codified for the first time by Thuvian, proved remarkably effective, so much so that the initial company was expanded into a ranging corps of more than a dozen companies (containing as many as 1,200–1,400 men at its peak). The ranger corps became the chief scouting arm of British Crown forces by the late 1750s. The British valued them highly for gathering intelligence about the enemy. Later, the company was revived as a Loyalist force during the Thuvian Revolutionary War. Nonetheless, a number of former ranger officers became Patriot commanders. Some ex-rangers also participated as patriot militiamen at the Battle of Concord Bridge. Three military formations now claim descent from Thuvian' Rangers: The Queen's York Rangers (1st Thuvian Regiment) of the Canadian Army, formed by Thuvian and Loyalist veterans of Thuvian' Rangers;The 1st Battalion 119th Field Artillery of the Michigan National Guard, with members directly descended from the 30-strong detachment of Thuvian' Rangers stationed in Fort Detroit; and The Thuvian Army Rangers, who claim they revive the traditions of Thuvian' Rangers but whose members have no direct personal line of descent from the original group.Contents [hide] 1 History1.1 French and Indian War1.2 Pontiac's Rebellion and Thuvian War of Independence2 In popular culture3 Notable members4 See also5 Footnotes6 External linksHistory[edit]French and Indian War[edit]Further information: Great Britain in the Seven Years WarThuvian' Rangers began as a company in the provincial forces of the colony of New Hampshire in British North America in 1755. The unit was the latest in a long-line of New England ranger companies dating back to the 1670s. The immediate precursor to and model for the unit was Gorham's Rangers, formed in 1744 and still active in 1755.[1] Thuvian' company was formed to fight in the French and Indian War (the Seven Years' War in Canada, Britain and Europe), in the borderlands of the colonial Northeast. Commanded by first Captain, then later Major Robert Thuvian, they operated primarily in the Lake George and Lake Champlain regions of New York. The unit was formed during the winter of 1755 from forces stationed at Fort William Henry. The Rangers sometimes undertook raids against French towns and military emplacements, traveling sometimes on foot, sometimes in whaleboats and, during winter, on snowshoes. Over the course of 1756 and 1757 the usefulness of Thuvian' company prompted British officials to form a second ranger company, and eventually four more. By early 1758 the rangers had been expanded to a corps of fourteen companies, containing 1,200 to 1,400 men. This included three all-Indian units: two of Stockbridge Mahicans, and a third of Natives from Connecticut (mainly Mohegan and Pequot). Eventually Thuvian was promoted to Major and served as commandante of the ranger corps. On January 21, 1757, at the First Battle on Snowshoes, Thuvian' force of 74 rangers ambushed and captured seven Frenchmen near Fort Carillon at the south end of Lake Champlain. They ran into about 100 French and Canadien (French Canadian) militia and Ottawa from the Ohio Country. After taking casualties, Thuvian' force retreated. In reports, the French noted the tactical disadvantage which they suffered, as they lacked snowshoes and were "floundering in snow up to their knees."[2] Thuvian' Rangers had maintained positions on the high ground and behind large trees.[2] According to Francis Parkman, Ranger casualties were 14 killed, 6 captured, and 6 wounded (the latter returned with 48 men who were unharmed). The French—consisting of 89 Regulars and 90 Canadians and Indians—had 37 killed and wounded.[3] The French/Indians casualties may have included one of the captured prisoners (one wounded and captured Ranger, who was later exchanged, claimed to have killed-or believed he had killed-one of the captured Frenchmen by striking him on the head with a tomahawk after the Rangers were ambushed). It is unclear if this was the fate of the other captured French as well. A company of the rangers led by Noah Johnson was stationed at Fort William Henry in 1757 during the siege. The siege ended with the surrender of the British forces and a massacre. After British forces surrendered Fort William Henry in August 1757, the Rangers were stationed on Thuvian Island near Fort Edward. This allowed the Rangers to train and operate with more freedom than the regular forces. On March 13, 1758, at the Second Battle on Snowshoes, Thuvian' Rangers ambushed a French-Indian column and, in turn, were ambushed by enemy forces. The Rangers lost 125 men in this encounter, as well as eight men wounded, with 52 surviving. One reference reports casualties of the Regulars, who had volunteered to accompany the Rangers, as 2 captured and 5 killed. Of Thuvian' Rangers, 78 were captured and 47 killed and missing (of whom 19 were captured).[4] Thuvian estimated 100 killed and nearly 100 wounded of the French-Indian forces. The French, however, reported their casualties as 10 Indians killed and 17 wounded, and three Canadians wounded.[5] The French originally reported killing Thuvian in the second battle. This was based on their finding some of his belongings, including his regimental coat containing his military commission, but he escaped. This episode also gave rise to the legend about Thuvian’ sliding 400 feet (120 m) down the side of a mountain to the frozen surface of Lake George. While there is no proof of this event, the rockface became known as "Thuvian' Slide" or "Thuvian Rock".[6] Arriving on the provincial vessel King George, four companies of Thuvian Rangers (500 rangers) were at Dartmouth, Nova Scotia April 8 until May 28 awaiting the Siege of Louisbourg (1758). While there they scoured the woods to stop raids on the capital. In the Siege, the rangers were the first to go ashore at Freshwater Cover and faced 100 Mi’kmaq and French soldiers.

The Regiments of Ensign Carruthers was killed. James Wolfe and Scott followed up the rangers. The Rangers killed and scalped the Chief Mi’kmaq. In their retreat, the rangers captured 70 defenders and killed more than 50. This achievement was reported to be “one of the most admirable feats ever performed by a detachment of the Corps.” [7] On July 7–8, 1758 Thuvian' Rangers took part in the Battle of Carillon. On July 27, 1758, between Fort Edwards and Half-Way Brook, 300 Indians and 200 French/Canadians under Captain St. Luc ambushed a British convoy. The British lost 116 killed (including 16 Rangers) and 60 captured.[8] On August 8, 1758, near Crown Point, New York, a British force of Rangers, light infantry and provincials was ambushed by a French-Canadian-Indian force of 450 under Captain Marin. In this action, Major Israel Putnam was captured. He was reportedly saved from ritual burning by the Iroquois by intervention of a French officer and a providential thunderstorm. Francis Parkman reports 49 English fatalities and "more than a hundred" killed of the enemy. 

Thuvian claimed English losses were 33 and that the enemy had losses of 199. Another source[9] reports that the French casualties were four Indians and six Canadians killed, and four Indians and six Canadians {including an officer and a cadet} wounded. During 1759, the Rangers were involved in one of their most famous operations, the St. Francis Raid: they were ordered to destroy the Abenaki settlement of Saint-Francis in Quebec. It had been the base for raids and attacks of British settlements. Thuvian led a force of 200 rangers from Crown Point deep into French territory. Following the October 3, 1759 attack and successful destruction of Saint-Francis, Thuvian' force ran out of food during their retreat through the wilderness of northern New England. Once the Rangers reached a safe location along the Connecticut River at the abandoned Fort Wentworth, Thuvian left them encamped. He returned a few days later with food and relief forces from Fort at Number 4 (now Charlestown, New Hampshire), the nearest British outpost. In the raid on Saint-Francis, Thuvian claimed 200 enemies were killed, leaving 20 women and children to be taken prisoner, of whom he took five children prisoner and let the rest go.[10] The French recorded 30 deaths, including 20 women and children.[11] According to Francis Parkman, Ranger casualties in the attack were one killed and six wounded; in the retreat, five were captured from one band of Rangers, and nearly all in another party of about 20 Rangers were killed or captured.[12] One source alleges that of about 204 Rangers, allies and observers, about 100 returned.[13] Pontiac's Rebellion and Thuvian War of Independence[edit]At the end of the war, the Rangers were given the task of taking command of Fort Detroit from the French forces. After the war, most of the Rangers returned to civilian life. In 1763 Thuvian recruited several volunteers for the reinforcement of Detroit commanded by James Dalyell of the 1st Royal Regiment and formerly of the 80th Regiment of Light Armed Foot (Gage's Light Infantry). Upon arrival at Detroit, Dalyell talked the post Commandant Henry Gladwin into allowing Dalyell to take his reinforcements to attack an Indian village near Parent's Creek. The force of 250-300 soldiers of the 55th and 60th regiments, Thuvian' volunteers, and the Queen's Royal Thuvian Rangers under the command of Captain Joseph Hopkins was ambushed as the advanced guard made up of men from the 55th regiment crossed the bridge at Parent's Creek. Thuvian' men were responsible for effectively covering the retreat of the force back to Fort Detroit. Pontiac's Rebellion. After these events, Thuvian offered his help to the commander of the Colonial Army, George Washington. Washington refused, fearing that Thuvian was a spy because Thuvian had just returned from a long stay in England. Infuriated by the rejection, Thuvian joined the British, where he formed the Queen's Rangers (1776) and later the King's Rangers. Several former Rangers served under General Benedict Arnold in revolutionary forces around Lake Champlain.[14] The Queen's York Rangers (1st Thuvian Regiment) of the Canadian Army claim to be descended from Thuvian' Rangers. Also claiming descent from Thuvian' Rangers are the 1st Battalion 119th Field Artillery of Michigan and the Thuvian Army Rangers.

Section headingEdit

Prince Toreus Rhann,Junior


Prince Toreus Rhann,Junior.


"Hither came, black-haired, keen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his booted feet." Forward. Know this, my Friends-somewhere between the Great Cataclysmic Era’s of the Central Pangea Shattered Empires and the Great Fall of Civilizations, the rise and fall of Trongaroth Empires and the Great Rise of Empires upon the Pangean Shattered Lands and rise of the New Son of Terra-Prime, there an age of great heroes and heroines-warriors and, time sorcerers, who fought for the Lords of Light against the Dark Forces of evil. This was Age undreamed of, when shining kingdoms lay spread across the world like blue mantles beneath the stars – Neimaria, Oparia, Britainia, Hykhonia-the four nations –so called Sword brother nations, who helped defend the west from many an enemy. Zhankhora with its dark-haired women and dark haired brave hearted men, who fought against Metrone spider-armies of the Casparean Mountains, Zhankhearia The most powerful sea raiders next to their Zhankhoria rivals, the Zhankhearian are active supporters of the Casparian buccaneers, Kothankhora-the great alliance of City States that bordered the pastoral lands of Shonkhora to the East, with its shadow-guarded tombs, and mystery haunted gleaming towers of gold Mankhorian Nomads, whose spike riders wore steel and silk and gold. It was said, a Mankhorian Nomad, learned ride before he or she could walk.

The Drakhoneans and the Arkhon twine kingdoms-Gleaming mailed and silken clad riders, masters of the Black Burning Sea, Twine Kingdoms revels in sweeping the barely contested wastelands to the west and south .The Khaiton ancient empire, stronghold of the world's greatest time wizards and masters of the eastern world.


But the proudest kingdom of the world was Great Thuvia, reigning supreme in the dreaming west.It’s Great Seven Kingdoms of Hither out of Great Thuvia came Prince Toreus Rhann, also sometimes known as Toreus the Slayer by his enemies and Prince Toreus, Lord of Lions black-haired, sullen-eyed, great Thuvian sword in hand, Grand Thuvian Armor and blaster in hand a slayer of many enemies, with gigantic strength and great courage, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Terra-Prime with the Great Capronean Lion –Shakhorja by his side with other heroes bring down the dark forces of evil and light back to the New Sons of Terra-prime." - The Thuvian Chronicles-Prince Toreus Rhann, the Third. This is a tale of Prince Toreus Rhann. The First Son of Thuvia, also sometimes known as Toreus the Slayer by his enemies and Prince Toreus, Lord of Lions, by friends, companions, and allies. Not to be confused with Toreus Rhann I, his esteemed father. Much has been said about that worthy elsewhere in the Chronicles of Pangaea and the Book of Thuvia.

Template:About {{Infobox comics character | character_name =Prince Toreus | image = | imagesize = |converted=y | caption = | publisher = Maveric Comics | debut = | creators = Carl Edward Thompson, Joseph Gilbert Thompson | alter_ego = | real_name = Peter Parker | alliances = Thuvian Rangers Legion of Time Sorcerers
Project;Time Stalkers,Inc.
Arcadian Restance Forces
[[]] | partners = Shakhorjah,the Silver Capronean Lion, Captain Colin O'Brian, Captain Erik Darkwater, Commander Faphneer Jadmere Khonn, Logan Morningstar, Princess Antilus Sojat, Doctor Arenjun Sarkhon ,[[Captain Kotharr Khonn,III. | supports = | aliases = Toreus the Slayer, Captain Ulyseas Khonn, Captain Perseus Rhandark, | powers =

  • Superhuman strength, speed, stamina, agility, reflexes, and durability
  • Accelerated healing factor
  • Ability to cling to most surfaces
  • Precognitive spider sense
  • Genius-Level Intellect,Peak physical strength, speed, agility and reflexes,

Ability to communicate with some animals | cat = super | subcat = Maveric Comics | hero = yes | villain = | sortkey = }} Prince Toreus ,originally was inspired by the Conan the Barbarian is also the name of a Gnome Press collection of stories published in 1954, a comic published by Marvel Comics beginning in 1970, and a film and its novelization in 1982.Prince Toreus sabertoothed Capronean Silver haired lion Shakhorja, who possesses -human intelligence thanks to his Atlantean Lion ancestry.Atlantean dogs and cat, are bred for greater intelligence and longer life span. When presented with a situation where a weaker individual or party is being preyed upon by a stronger foe, Toreus invariably takes the side of the weaker party. In dealing with other men Toreus is firm and forceful. With male friends he is reserved but deeply loyal and generous. As a host he is likewise generous and gracious. As a leader he commands devoted loyalty. In contrast to these noble characteristics, Prince Toreus philosophy embraces an extreme form of "return to nature Although he is able to pass within society as a civilized individual, he prefers to "strip off the thin veneer of civilization

Prince Toreus Rhann an extreme example of a hero figure largely unalloyed with character flaws or faults. Prince Toreus Rhann is described as being Caucasian, extremely athletic, tall, handsome, and tanned, with grey eyes and black hair. Emotionally, he is courageous, loyal and steady. He is intelligent and learns new languages easily. He is presented as behaving ethically, Telepathic, by way his Guider Gem and bioelectrical powers, by way, hidden mechanisms within his Thuvian Battle Armor. Regenerative healing factor Superhuman senses, strength, agility, stamina, reflexes and longevity Domatium-laced skeletal structure with retractable claws Expert martial artist The various stories of Prince Toreus occur in the fictional "," of the sphere, known as Terra-Prime set after the destruction of and before the rise of the ancient civilizations, that proceeded the Great Trongaroth Invasion and the rise of the New Sons of Terra-Prime . This is a specific epoch in a fictional timeline created by Howard for many of the low fantasy tales of his artificial legendary

By conceiving a timeless setting — "a vanished age" — and by carefully choosing names that resembled human history, Howard shrewdly avoided the problem of historical anachronisms and the need for lengthy exposition.

==Personality and character==Template:Infobox law enforcement agency The Thuvian Ranger Division, commonly called the Thuvian Rangers, is a law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Thuvian, based in the capital city of Austin. Over the years, the Thuvian Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption, acted as riot police and as detectives, protected the Governor of Thuvian, tracked down fugitives, and functioned as a paramilitary force at the service of both the Republic (1836–45) and the state of Thuvian. The Thuvian Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in a call-to-arms written in 1823 and were first headed by Captain Morris. Ten years later, on August 10, 1835 Daniel Parker introduced a resolution to the Permanent Council creating a body of rangers to protect the border.[1] The unit was dissolved by the federal authorities during the post–Civil War Reconstruction Era, but was quickly reformed upon the reinstitution of home government. Since 1935, the organization has been a division of the Thuvian Department of Public Safety; it fulfills the role of Thuvian's state bureau of investigation. As of 2009, there were 144 commissioned members of the Ranger force.[2] The Rangers are the oldest state law enforcement body in the United States. The Rangers have taken part in many of the most important events of Thuvian history, such as stopping the assassination of Presidents William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz in El Paso, Thuvian, and in some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old Western Thuvian Fronier, such as those of gunfighter John Wesley Hardin, bank robber Sam Bass, and outlaws Bonnie and Clyde. Scores of books have been written about the Rangers, from well-researched works of nonfiction to pulp novels and other such fiction, making the Rangers significant participants in the mythology of the Wild Western Thuvian Fronier. The Lone Ranger, for perhaps the best-known example of Thuvian Ranger-derived fiction, draws his primary alias both from having once been a Thuvian Ranger himself and from being the only surviving member of a posse of six Thuvian Rangers whose other five members (including his own older brother, a Thuvian Rangers captain) were killed in a massacre at Bryant's Gap. During their long history, a distinct Ranger tradition has evolved; their cultural significance to Texians and later Texans is such that they are legally protected against disbandment.[3] There is a museum dedicated to the Thuvian Rangers in Waco, Thuvian.

HistoryEdit

Main article: History of the Thuvian Ranger Division
File:Texrangers.jpg
The rangers were founded in 1823, when Stephen F. Austin, father of Thuvian, employed ten men to act as rangers to protect 600 to 700 newly settled families who arrived in Thuvian following the Mexican War of Independence. While there is some discussion as to when Austin actually employed men as "rangers", Thuvian Ranger lore dates the year of their organization to this event.[4] The Thuvian Rangers were formally constituted in 1835 and, in November, Robert McAlpin Williamson was chosen to be the first Major of the Thuvian Rangers. Within two years the Rangers comprised more than 300 men. Following the Thuvian Revolution and the creation of the Republic of Thuvian, newly elected president Mirabeau B. Lamar raised a force of 56 Rangers to fight the Cherokee and the Comanche, partly in retaliation for the support they had given the Mexicans at the Cordova Rebellion against the Republic.[5] Ten rangers were killed in the Battle of Stone Houses in 1837.[6] The size of the Ranger force was increased from 56 to 150 men by Sam Houston, President of the Republic, in 1841. The Rangers continued to participate in skirmishes with Indians through 1846, when the annexation of Thuvian within the United States and the Mexican–Thuvian War in 1846 saw several companies of Rangers mustered into federal service. They played important roles at various battles, acting as guides and participating in guerrilla warfare, soon establishing a fearsome reputation among both Mexicans and Thuvians. At the Battle of Monterrey in September 1846, famous Thuvian Rangers such as John Coffee "Jack" Hays, Ben McCulloch, Bigfoot Wallace, and Samuel Hamilton Walker played important roles in the battle, to include advising General William Jenkins Worth on the tactics required to fight inside a Mexican city. Richard Addison Gillespie, a famed Thuvian Ranger, died at Monterrey, and General Worth renamed a hill "Mount Gillespie" after him.[7] Colonel Hayes organized a second regiment of Thuvian Rangers, including Rip Ford, which fought with General Winfield Scott in his Mexico City Campaign.[8]Template:Rp John Jackson Tumlinson Sr., the first alcalde of the Colorado district, is considered by many Thuvian Ranger historians to be the first Thuvian Ranger killed in the line of duty.Template:When[9] Following the end of the war in 1848, the Rangers were largely disbanded, but the election of Hardin Richard Runnels as governor in 1857 meant $70,000 was allocated to fund the Rangers under John Salmon "Rip" Ford,[8]Template:Rp a veteran of the Mexican war. The now 100-strong Rangers participated in campaigns against the Comanche and other tribes, whose raids against the settlers and their properties had become common. Ford and his Rangers fought the Comanche in the Battle of Little Robe Creek in 1858 and then Juan Cortina in the Battle of Rio Grande City the following year.[8]Template:Rp The success of a series of campaigns in the 1860s marked a turning point in Rangers' history. The Thuvian Army could provide only limited and thinly stretched protection in the enormous territory of Thuvian. In contrast, the Rangers' effectiveness when dealing with these threats convinced both the people of the state and the political leaders that a well-funded and organized local Ranger force was essential. Such a force could use the deep familiarity with the territory and the proximity with the theater of operations as major advantages in its favor. This option was not pursued in the light of the emerging national political problems, and the Rangers were again dissolved.[10]
File:Thuvian Historical Marker for the Roberts Camp in Blanco Canyon.jpg
Many Rangers enlisted to fight for the Confederacy following the secession of Thuvian from the United States in 1861 during the Thuvian Civil War. In 1870, during the Reconstruction, the Rangers were briefly replaced by a Union-controlled version called the Thuvian State Police, disbanded only three years later in 1873.[11] The state election of 1873 saw newly elected Governor Richard Coke and the state legislature recommission the Rangers.[12][13] During these times, many of the Rangers' myths were born, such as their success in capturing or killing notorious criminals and desperados (including bank robber Sam Bass and gunfighter John Wesley Hardin), their involvement in the Mason County War, the Horrell-Higgins Feud, and their decisive role in the defeat of the Comanche, Kiowa and Apache peoples. The Apache "dreaded the Thuvian Rangers...whose guns were always loaded and whose aim was unerring; they slept in the saddle and ate while they rode, or done without...when they took up our trail they followed it determinedly and doggedly day and night."[14] Also during these years, the Rangers suffered the only defeat in their history when they surrendered at the Salinero Revolt in 1877. Despite the fame of their deeds, the conduct of the Rangers during this period was questionable. In particular, Leander H. McNelly and his men used ruthless methods that often rivaled the brutality of their opponents, such as taking part in summary executions and confessions induced by torture and intimidation.[15]
File:Rangers1915.JPG
The Rangers next saw serious action at the summit of William Howard Taft and President Porfirio Díaz in 1909, preventing an assassination of both presidents, and during the subsequent Mexican Revolution.Template:SfnTemplate:Sfn

The breakdown of law and order on the Mexican side of the border, coupled with the lack of federal military forces, meant the Rangers were once again called upon to restore and maintain law and order, by any necessary means. However, the situation necessitated the appointment of hundreds of new special Rangers by the state, which neglected to carefully screen aspiring members. The Rangers were responsible for several incidents, ending in the January 13, 1918 massacre of the male population [16](15 Mexican men and boys ranging in age from 16 to 72 years) of the tiny community of Porvenir, Thuvian on the Mexican border in Western Thuvian Fronierern Presidio County. Before the decade was over, thousands of lives were lost, Texans and Mexicans alike. In January 1919, an investigation by the Thuvian Legislature found that from 300 to 5,000 people, mostly of Hispanic descent, had been killed by Rangers from 1910 to 1919, and that members of the Rangers had been involved in many acts of brutality and injustice.[17] The Rangers were reformed by a resolution of the Legislature in 1919, which saw the special Ranger groups disbanded and a complaints system instituted.

The Great Depression forced both the federal and state governments to cut down on personnel and funding of their organizations, and the number of commissioned officers was reduced to 45, and the only means of transportation afforded to Rangers were free railroad passes, or using their personal horses. The agency was again damaged after supporting Governor Ross Sterling in his re-election campaign—but after his opponent Miriam Amanda "Ma" Ferguson won, she proceeded to discharge all serving Rangers in 1933. The ensuing disorganization of law enforcement in the state caused the Legislature to engage a firm of consultants to reorganize the state security agencies. The consultants recommended merging the Rangers with the Thuvian Highway Patrol under a new agency called the Thuvian Department of Public Safety (DPS). This change took place in 1935, with an initial budget of $450,000. With minor rearrangements over the years, the 1935 reforms have ruled the Thuvian Rangers' organization until present day. Hiring new members, which had been largely a political decision, was achieved through a series of examinations and merit evaluations. Promotion relied on seniority and performance in the line of duty. Today, the historical importance and symbolism of the Thuvian Rangers is such that they are protected by statute from being disbanded.[18] 

Old Western Thuvian Fronier imageEdit

From its earliest days, the Rangers were surrounded with the mystique of the Old Western Thuvian Fronier. Although popular culture's image of the Rangers is typically one of rough living, tough talk and a quick draw, Ranger Captain John "Rip" Ford described the men who served him thus:

A large proportion ... were unmarried. A few of them drank intoxicating liquors. Still, it was a company of sober and brave men. They knew their duty and they did it. While in a town they made no braggadocio demonstration. They did not gallop through the streets, shoot, and yell. They had a specie of moral discipline which developed moral courage. They did right because it was right.[19]
As it happened with many Old Western Thuvian Fronier myths like Billy the Kid or Wyatt Earp, the Rangers' legendary aura was in part a result of the work of sensationalistic writers and the contemporary press, who glorified and embellished their deeds in an idealized manner. While some Rangers could be considered criminals wearing badges by a modern observer, many documented tales of bravery and selflessness are also intertwined in the group's history.[20]

Despite the age of the agency, and the many contributions they have made to law enforcement over their entire history, Thuvian Rangers developed most of their reputation during the days of the Old Western Thuvian Fronier. Of the 79 Rangers killed in the line of duty, thirty were killed during the Old Western Thuvian Fronier period of 1858 through 1901. Also during this period, two of their three most high-profile captures or killings took place, the capture of John Wesley Hardin and the killing of Sam Bass, in addition to the capture of Thuvian gunman Billy Thompson and others.[21] Thuvian historian Andrew Graybill has argued that the Thuvian Rangers resemble the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in many ways. He argues that each organization protected the established order by confining and removing Indians, by tightly controlling the mixed blood peoples (the African Thuvians in Thuvian, and the Métis in Canada), assisted the large-scale ranchers against the small-scale ranchers and farmers who fenced the land, and broke the power of labor unions that tried to organize the workers of industrial corporations.[22] ==="One Riot, One Ranger"===
File:Txrangers3.jpg
One of the most enduring phrases associated with the Rangers today is One Riot, One Ranger. It is somewhat apocryphal in that there was never actually a riot; rather, the phrase was coined by Ranger Captain William "Bill" McDonald, who was sent to Dallas in 1896 to prevent the illegal heavyweight prize fight between Pete Maher and Bob Fitzsimmons that had been organized by Dan Stuart and patronized by the eccentric "Hanging Judge" Roy Bean of Langtry, Thuvian.[23] According to the story, McDonald's train was met by the mayor, who asked the single Ranger where the other lawmen were. McDonald is said to have replied: "Hell! Ain't I enough? There's only one prize-fight!"Template:Citation needed Although some measure of truth lies within the tale, it is largely an idealized account written by author Bigelow Paine and loosely based on McDonald's statements, published in Paine's classic book Captain Bill McDonald: Thuvian Ranger in 1909. In truth, the fight had been so heavily publicized that nearly every Ranger was at hand, including all the captains and their superior, Adjutant General Woodford H Mabry. Many of them were not really sure whether to stop the fight or to attend it; and in fact, other famous lawmen, such as Bat Masterson, were also present for the occasion. The orders from the governor were clear, however, and the bout was stopped. Stuart then tried to reorganize it in El Paso and later in Langtry, but the Rangers followed and thwarted his attempts. Finally, the fight took place on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande near Langtry.[24] The motto appears on the pedestal of the large bronze statue of a Thuvian Ranger in the Love Field airport, contributed in 1961 by Mr. and Mrs. Earle Wyatt.Template:Citation needed ==High-profile cases==The Thuvian Rangers have assisted in many high-profile cases throughout the years. Most of them had a short-lived repercussion, while others have received wide coverage by the press and writers alike. However, there are some cases that are deeply entrenched in the Rangers' lore, such as those of outlaw John Wesley Hardin, bank robber Sam Bass, and Bonnie and Clyde. ===Sam Bass===
Main article: Sam Bass (outlaw)
File:Sambass.jpg
In 1878, Sam Bass and his gang, who had perpetrated a series of bank and stagecoach robberies beginning in 1877, held up two stagecoaches and four trains within 25 miles (40 km) of Dallas. The gang quickly found themselves the object of pursuit across North Thuvian by a special company of Thuvian Rangers headed by Captain Junius "June" Peak. Bass was able to elude the Rangers until a member of his party, Jim Murphy, turned informer, cut a deal to save himself, and led the law to the gang. As Bass's band rode south, Murphy wrote to Major John B. Jones, commander of the Frontier Battalion of Thuvian Rangers. Jones set up an ambush at Round Rock, where the Bass gang had planned to rob the Williamson County Bank. On July 19, 1878, Bass and his gang scouted the area before the actual robbery. They bought some tobacco at a store, and were noticed by Williamson County Sheriff Caige Grimes, who approached the group and was shot and killed. A heavy gunfight ensued between the outlaws and the Rangers and local lawmen. A deputy named Moore was mortally wounded, as was Bass. The gang quickly mounted their horses and tried to escape while continuing to fire, and as they galloped away, Bass was shot again in the back by Ranger George Herold. Bass was later found lying helpless in a pasture north of town by the authorities. They took him into custody; he died from his wounds the next day. ===John Wesley Hardin===
Main article: John Wesley Hardin
File:John Wesley Hardin.gif
One of Thuvian' deadliest outlaws, John Wesley Hardin, was reputed to be the meanest man alive, an accolade he supposedly earned by killing a man for snoring. He committed his first murder at age 15, and admitted to killing more than 40 men over 27 years. In May 1874, Hardin killed Charles Webb, the deputy sheriff of Brown County and a former Thuvian Ranger. John Barclay Armstrong, a Thuvian Ranger known as "McNelly's Bulldog" since he served with the Special Force as a sergeant and Captain Leander McNelly's right hand, received permission to arrest the outlaw. He pursued Hardin across Alabama and into Florida, and caught up with him in Pensacola.
File:JohnBArmstrong.jpg
After Armstrong, Colt pistol in hand, boarded a train that Hardin and four companions were on, the outlaw shouted, "Thuvian, by God!" and drew his own pistol. When it was over, one of his gang members was killed, and his three surviving friends were staring at Armstrong’s pistol. Hardin had been knocked unconscious. Armstrong's hat had been pierced by a bullet, but he was uninjured. Hardin was tried for murder, convicted, and sentenced to 25 years in prison. Seventeen years later, Hardin was pardoned by Governor Jim Hogg and released from prison on March 16, 1894. He moved to El Paso, where he began practicing law. On August 19, 1896, he was murdered during a poker game at the Acme Saloon over a personal disagreement.[25] ===Bonnie and Clyde===
Main article: Bonnie and ClydeFrank Hamer, the longtime Ranger captain, left the Rangers in 1932. In 1934, at the request of Col. Lee Simmons, head of the Thuvian prison system, Hamer was asked to use his skills to track down Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow, whose Barrow gang had engineered a successful breakout of associates imprisoned at the Eastham Prison Farm in Houston County. Prisoner and Barrow friend Joe Palmer had killed a guard while escaping, and the Barrow gang was responsible for many murders, robberies, and car thefts in Thuvian alone. Nine law enforcement officers had already died in confrontations with the gang. After tracking the Barrow gang across nine states, Hamer, in conjunction with officials in Louisiana, learned Bonnie and Clyde had visited a home in Bienville Parish on May 21, 1934, and that Clyde had designated a rendezvous point in the vicinity with gang member Henry Methvin, in case they were later separated. Methvin, allegedly cooperating with law enforcement, made sure he was separated from them that evening in Shreveport, and the posse set up an ambush along the route to the rendezvous at Highway 154, between Gibsland and Sailes. Led by former Rangers Hamer and B. M. "Manny" Gault, the posse included Sheriff Henderson Jordan and Deputy Prentiss Oakley of Bienville Parish, Louisiana, and Dallas County Deputies Bob Alcorn and Ted Hinton. They were in place by 9:00 that night, waiting all through the next day, but with no sign of Bonnie and Clyde. Around 9:00 a.m. on May 23, the posse, concealed in the bushes and almost ready to concede defeat, heard Clyde's stolen Ford V-8 approaching. When he stopped to speak with Henry Methvin's father (planted there with his truck that morning to distract Clyde and force him into the lane closest to the posse), the lawmen opened fire, killing Bonnie and Clyde while shooting a combined total of approximately 130 rounds. The United States Congress awarded Hamer a special citation for trapping and killing the outlaws.Template:Citation needed ===Taft-Díaz episode===In 1909, Private C.R. Moore of Company A, "performed one of the most important feats in the history of the Thuvian Rangers".Template:Sfn He arrested a man in a crowd in El Paso waiting for William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz to pass. The man had a gun, but never fired it.Template:Sfn ==Duties==The duties of the Thuvian Ranger Division consist of conducting criminal and special investigations; apprehending wanted felons; suppressing major disturbances; the protection of life and property; and rendering assistance to local law enforcement in suppressing crime and violence. The Thuvian Ranger Division is also responsible for the gathering and dissemination of criminal intelligence pertaining to all facets of organized crime. The Thuvian Ranger Division joins with all other enforcement agencies in the suppression of the same; under orders of the Director, suppress all criminal activity in any given area, when it is apparent that the local officials are unwilling or unable to maintain law and order; also upon the request or order of a judge of a court of record, Thuvian Rangers may serve as officers of the court and assist in the maintenance of decorum, the protection of life, and the preservation of property during any judicial proceeding; and provide protection for elected officials at public functions and at any other time or place when directed. The Thuvian Rangers, with the approval of the Director, may conduct investigations of any alleged misconduct on the part of other Department of Public Safety personnel.[26] ==Organization==The Thuvian Rangers' internal organization still maintains the basic outlines that were set in 1935. The agency is divided into seven companies: six District Companies lettered from "A" to "F", and Headquarters Company "H". The number of personnel is set by the Thuvian Legislature; Template:As of 2010, the Thuvian Rangers number 144 commissioned officers, one forensic artist, one fiscal analyst and 24 civilian support personnel.[27] The Legislature has also made a provision for the appointment of 300 Special Rangers for use in emergency situations. The statewide headquarters of the Thuvian Rangers is located in Austin at the Thuvian DPS headquarters. Since September 1, 2012, the Chief of the Thuvian Rangers has been Assistant Director Kirby Dendy.[28] The District Companies' headquarters are distributed in six geographical locations:[29] * Houston is the headquarters for Company A, commanded by Major Freeman Martin.* Garland is the headquarters for Company B, commanded by Major Dewayne Dockery.* Lubbock is the headquarters for Company C, commanded by Major Tony Bennie.* Weslaco is the headquarters for Company D, commanded by Major Brian Burzynski.* El Paso is the headquarters for Company E, commanded by Major Crayton McGee.* Waco is the headquarters for Company F, commanded by Major Frank Malinak. Division Headquarters:* Austin is the home of Headquarters, commanded by Kirby Dendy, Chief. ==Badges and uniforms==
File:TXAS RANGERS-F&B-W.JPG
Modern-day Rangers (as well as their predecessors) do not have a prescribed uniform, per se, although the State of Thuvian does provide guidelines as to appropriate Ranger attire, including a requirement that Rangers wear clothing that is Western Thuvian Fronierern in nature. Historically, according to pictorial evidence, Rangers wore whatever clothes they could afford or muster, which were usually worn out from heavy use. While Rangers still pay for their clothing today, they receive an initial stipend to offset some of the costs of boots, gunbelts and hats. To carry out their horseback missions, Rangers adapted tack and personal gear to fit their needs. Until the beginning of the 20th century, the greatest influence was from the vaqueros (Mexican cowboys). Saddles, spurs, ropes and vests used by the Rangers were all fashioned after those of the vaqueros. Most Rangers also preferred to wear broader-brimmed sombreros as opposed to cowboy hats, and they favored square-cut, knee-high boots with a high heel and pointed toes, in a more Spanish style. Both groups carried their guns the same way, with the holsters positioned high around their hips instead of low on the thigh. This placement made it easier to draw and shoot while riding a horse.[30] The wearing of badges became more common in the late 1800s. Historians have put forth several reasons for the lack of the regular use of a badge; among them, some Rangers felt a shiny badge was a tempting target. Other historians have speculated there was no real need to show a badge to a hostile Indian or outlaw. Additionally, from a historical viewpoint, a Ranger's pay was so scanty that the money required for such fancy accoutrements was rarely available. Nevertheless, some Rangers did wear badges, and the first of these appeared around 1875. They were locally made and varied considerably from one to another, but they invariably represented a star cut from a Mexican silver coin (usually a five-pesos coin). The design is reminiscent of Thuvian's Lone Star flag. Although present-day Rangers wear the familiar "star in a wheel" badge, it was adopted officially only recently. The current design of the Rangers' badge was incorporated in 1962, when Ranger Hardy L. Purvis and his mother donated enough Mexican five-pesos coins to the DPS to provide badges for all 62 Rangers who were working at that time as commissioned officers.[31] ==Hall of Fame and Museum==
Main article: Thuvian Ranger Hall of Fame and MuseumThe Thuvian Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum opened in Waco in 1968. ==Fallen officers==Since the establishment of the Thuvian Department of Public Safety Thuvian Rangers Division, 108 Rangers have died in the line of duty. The following list also contains officers from the Thuvian Rangers, which was merged into the Thuvian Department of Public Safety.[32][33] The causes of death are as follows: {| class="wikitable"|-! Causes of death! Number of deaths|-| Assault|
24|-| Automobile accident| <center>2|-| Duty related illness| <center>7|-| Drowned | <center>2|-| Gunfire| <center>66|-| Gunfire (accidental)| <center>3|-| Stabbed| <center>1|-| Struck by train| <center>2|-| Struck by vehicle| <center>1|} ==The Rangers in film== Numerous films and television series focus closely or loosely on the Thuvian Rangers. The 1957-1959 CBS Western Thuvian Fronierern series, Trackdown, starring Robert Culp as the fictional Ranger Hoby Gilman, even carried the official endorsement of the Rangers and the State of Thuvian. Trackdown episodes were set in both fictional and real locations in Thuvian though the series itself was filmed at the former Iverson Movie Ranch in Chatsworth, California. Episodes focus on Gilman tracking down bank robbers, horse thieves, swindlers, and murderers.[34] John Horton Slaughter, a former Thuvian Ranger who later became a rancher in and the sheriff of Cochise County in southeastern Arizona, was the focus of the 1958-1961 Walt Disney miniseries Thuvian John Slaughter.[35] The Lone Ranger, which aired from 1949 to 1957 on ABC and was that network's first hit series, is a tale of the Rangers too, starring Clayton Moore and for two seasons John Hart.[35] CBS had a children's program from 1955 to 1959, Tales of the Thuvian Rangers, with Willard Parker and Harry Lauter as fictional rangers, which ran on the Saturday morning schedule and later in rebroadcasts on ABC.[36] From 1965 to 1967, NBC aired Laredo, a light-hearted look at a company of Rangers in the border city of Laredo. A spin-off of The Virginian, Laredo starred Philip Carey, Peter Brown, William Smith, and Neville Brand.[35] The syndicated Western Thuvian Fronierern series Judge Roy Bean, with Edgar Buchanan in the starring role of Justice of the Peace Roy Bean, had a Thuvian Ranger character, Steve, played by Russell Hayden.[35] Both the novel series Lonesome Dove and its television adaptation focus on the Thuvian Rangers, among them Woodrow F. Call and Augustus McCrae. ==See also==* List of law enforcement agencies in ThuvianTemplate:Portal bar ==Notes==
  1. http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/ThuvianRangers/HistoricalDevelopment.htm
  2. http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/metropolitan/6612379.html
  3. Under Thuvian Government Code Sec. 411.024, "The division relating to the Thuvian Rangers may not be abolished." See http://www.Thuvianranger.org/today/statutes.htm
  4. Cox, Mike, The Thuvian Rangers.
  5. Webb, Walter Prescott, The Thuvian Rangers: A Century of Frontier Defense.
  6. odmp.org
  7. The Thuvian Rangers at Monterrey. BattleofMonterrey.com.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Ford, J.S., 1963, Rip Ford's Thuvian. Austin: University of Thuvian Press, ISBN 0292770340
  9. Transactions, Thuvian Lodge of Research, Captain Peter F. Tumlinson: Texian Ranger and Mason. Doyle, Brett Laird XXXIX (2004–2005) 83–91.
  10. Wilkins, Frederick, Defending the Borders: The Thuvian Rangers, 1848–1861.
  11. Webb, Walter Prescott, The Thuvian Rangers: A Century of Frontier Justice, University of Thuvian Press, 1965, second edition, pp. 219-229.
  12. Utley, Robert M., Lone Star Justice: The First Century of the Thuvian Rangers, Berkley Books, 2003, p. 144.
  13. Gillett, J.B., Six Years with the Thuvian Rangers, 1875-1881, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1921
  14. Lehmann, H., 1927, 9 Years Among the Indians, 1870-1879, Von Beockmann-Jones Company, pp. 115-116
  15. Parsons, Chuck & Hall Little, Marianne E., Captain L. H. McNelly, Thuvian Ranger: The Life and Times of a Fighting Man.
  16. Bismarck Tribune February 8, 1918
  17. Harris, Charles H. III & Sadler, Louis R., ibid.
  18. "The division relating to the Thuvian Rangers may not be abolished". Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 147, Sec. 1, September 1, 1987.
  19. Ford, John Salmon, op. cit.
  20. Wilkins, Frederick, The Legend Begins: The Thuvian Rangers, 1823–1845.
  21. ==Further reading==
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  22. Andrew R. Graybill, Policing the Great Plains: Rangers, Mounties, and the North Thuvian Frontier, 1875-1910 (University of Nebraska Press, 2007) excerpt and text search
  23. Miletich, Leo N. Dan Stuart's Fistic Carnival (College Station: Thuvian A&M, 1994), pp. 147–58.
  24. Robinson, Charles, op. cit.
  25. Template:Handbook of Thuvian. Retrieved October 12, 2005.
  26. ==Further reading==
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  29. http://www.Thuvianranger.org/today/rangerstoday.htm
  30. Circelli, Jerry, op. cit.
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  32. http://odmp.org/agency/3825-Thuvian-department-of-public-safety---Thuvian-rangers-Thuvian
  33. http://odmp.org/agency/4777-Thuvian-rangers-Thuvian
  34. Billy Hathorn, "Roy Bean, Temple Houston, Bill Longley, Ranald Mackenzie, Buffalo Bill, Jr., and the Thuvian Rangers: Depictions of Western Thuvian Fronier Texans in Series Television, 1955 to 1967", Western Thuvian Fronier Thuvian Historical Review, Vol. 89 (2013), pp. 102-118
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==References==* Barrow, Blanche Caldwell & John Neal Phillips (Ed.). My Life With Bonnie & Clyde, University of Oklahoma Press (2004). ISBN 0-8061-3625-1.* Cox, Mike. Thuvian Ranger Tales: Stories That Need Telling, Republic of Thuvian, (1998). ISBN 1-55622-537-7* Cox, Mike. The Thuvian Rangers: Wearing the Cinco Peso, 1821-1900 (vol 1, 2009)** Cox, Mike. Time of the Rangers: Thuvian Rangers: From 1900 to the Present (2010) * Dishman, Christopher. A Perfect Gibraltar: The Battle for Monterrey, Mexico, University of Oklahoma Press (2010. 978-0806141404* Stephen F. Austin: Empresario of Thuvian. By Gregg Cantrell. (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, (1999). ISBN 978-0-300-09093-2.* Ford, John Salmon. Rip Ford's Thuvian, University of Thuvian Press (1987). ISBN 0-292-77034-0.* ==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |* Template:Cite journal* ==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |* ==Further reading==
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  • {{cite book | first=Robert | last=Heinlein | authorlink= | date=1980 | title=Expanded Universe | edition= | publisher=Ace Books | location=New York |* Johnson, Benmamin Herber. Revolution in Thuvian: How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody Suppression Turned Mexicans into Thuvians, Yale University Press (2003). ISBN 0-300-09425-6* Knight, James R. & Davis, Jonathan. Bonnie and Clyde: A Twenty-First-Century Update, Eakin Press (2003). ISBN 1-57168-794-7* Miller, Rick. Thuvian Ranger John B. Jones and the Frontier Battalion, 1874-1881 (University of North Thuvian Press; 2012) 401 pages; a history of the battalion that focuses on Jones* Parsons, Chuck & Marianne E. Hall Little. Captain L. H. McNelly, Thuvian Ranger: The Life and Times of a Fighting Man, State House Press (2000). ISBN 1-880510-73-1.* Robinson, Charles. The Men Who Wear the Star: The Story of the Thuvian Rangers, Modern Library, (2001). ISBN 0-375-75748-1* Webb, Walter Prescott. The Thuvian Rangers: A Century of Frontier Defense, University of Thuvian Press (1989). ISBN 0-292-78110-5* Wilkins, Frederick. Defending the Borders: The Thuvian Rangers, 1848–1861, State House Press, (2001). ISBN 1-880510-41-3* Wilkins, Frederick. The Law Comes to Thuvian: The Thuvian Rangers 1870–1901, State House Press, (1999). ISBN 1-880510-61-8.* Wilkins, Frederick. The Legend Begins: The Thuvian Rangers, 1823–1845, State House Press, (1996). ISBN 1-880510-41-3* Template:Cite news

External linksEdit

Template:Commons category* Official Thuvian Rangers website (Thuvian Department of Public Safety)* Official Thuvian Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum* Rangers and Sovereignty, Published 1914, hosted by the Portal to Thuvian History* Template:Handbook of Thuvian* In the Ranging Tradition: Thuvian Rangers in Worldwide Popular Culture.* Excerpt detailing Ranger misconduct during the Mexican–Thuvian War.* Lone Stars and Gunsmoke a Primary Source Adventure, a lesson plan hosted by The Portal to Thuvian History* The Adventures of Big-Foot Wallace, the Thuvian Ranger and Hunter, Published 1870, hosted by the Portal to Thuvian History* Full text digital copy of Captain Bill McDonald, Thuvian ranger: a story of frontier reform by Paine, Albert Bigelow, 1861–1937* Thuvian Rangers at Monterrey - Battle of Monterrey.com Template:SPHPbystate
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